Ancient philosophy and heritage of Christian apologists...

Ancient philosophy and heritage of Christian apologists.

Apologetics is a Christian literary movement of the second and third centuries, whose mission was to prove the legality of the existence of Christian communities in the face of the persecution of Christianity by the pagan authorities, and also to demonstrate the advantages of the Christian faith and the Christian way of life.

Due to the fact that the apologetic writings were addressed to the Roman authorities, they are an example of public social communication, which requires compliance with certain norms. The main of these norms was rhetoric - and therefore we see remarkable examples of the knowledge and use of the rhetorical heritage of antiquity, even among those apologists who are extremely negative towards this antiquity (for example, Tatian Assiriyets, who lived in the middle of the second half of the 2nd century. ). It is also important to understand that the apologetic texts were no less addressed to the Church and its members, informing them of Christian norms, the merits of the Christian life, and the main points of the Christian teaching. And to this end, the apologists are even more resolute in using the ancient philosophical tradition, in a number of cases (Justin, Clement of Alexandria), even admitting the presence of the Spirit or the Logos of God. "

The most revealing is the composition of the Clement of Alexandria "Teacher", where Christ as the Logos is interpreted as the universal mentor of the human race. The image of Christ here is as if written off with the type of ideal stoic sage. Possessing perfect knowledge, including his own destiny and the destiny of the human race, Christ is portrayed as a dispassionate perfect mentor, expressing in his sermon and his way of life the same Universal Logos that lies at the base of the universe. Apologetics uses as elements of stoic ethics as arguments in the polemic against the pagans, and references to the destinies of ancient philosophers, and the mid-Platonic ideas about the hierarchy of existence. Growing out of the same type of intellectual culture with which she argues, she does not tear with him, but shows the direction of the evolution of Christian thought.

Platonism and Origen.

Origen (185-253) - is one of the greatest thinkers of ancient Christianity. Born and educated in Alexandria, he absorbed all the most important elements of classical education and scholarship. Probably, he studied with Ammonius Saccas and was familiar with Plotinus, as the author of the biography of Plotinus Porphyry points out (modern scholars, it is true, argue whether Origen in Porphyry is talking about or some other). Although many of the teachings of Origen were condemned in the middle of the VI. as heretical, it must be said that for the III-V centuries. his writings were doctrinal in nature, and in some cases he even anticipated the dogmatic debates of the era of the Ecumenical Councils. His essay "On the Beginnings", , which has come down to us in the Latin translation, is the first Sum (code) of Christian knowledge. Origen's interpretation of the Scriptures became a model for subsequent allegorical interpretations of sacred books. Finally, the not preserved "Hexaples" - the publication of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament with its transcription by its Greek letter and with its four translations into Greek is a grandiose example of biblical textology, created in the tradition of Alexandrian philological criticism.

In his philosophical and theological synthesis, Origen uses the concepts of "essences" and "hypostases", anticipating the polemics of the IV-V centuries. The source for him is that Plato-Aristotelian tradition, in which Origen received his education. Especially dependence on this tradition is evident on the example of the interpretation of trinitarian (associated with the Trinity) problems. In the spirit of most theologians of the time, he disposes the Persons of the Trinity hierarchically (a concept called "subordinationism"). God the Father is characterized by him as a super-existent being (which is similar to the idea of ​​the Good in the "State" of Plato), God the Son - as the Image and Logos of Him who has no image, the Holy Spirit as the activity and care of the divine principle. Note that such ideas may reflect the mid-Platonic representations of the hierarchy of intelligible levels of being, for example, in Noumenia of Apamea (who similarly taught the first, second and third gods - different levels of being of the idea of ​​the good equated to the Universal for the universal Mind).

Even more vividly, Origen's dependence on Plato-Aristotelian cosmology was reflected in the doctrines attributed to him about the eternal creation of the worlds by God (in which another comes to replace another world), about our subsequent incarnation in the future worlds, and about universal salvation - Apocatastase. However, in modern science there is debate about whether he offered these teachings as doctrines or expressed them as some hypotheses (philosophermen, private points of view) who, when creating anti-orthodox church decisions were imputed to him blame.

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