Ancient philosophy and hermeticism. - History of ancient philosophy

Ancient philosophy and hermeticism

By Hermeticism is understood as the totality of religious, magical, theosophical ideas and practices corresponding to them that were formed in Egypt in the era of late Hellenism. We are primarily interested in what is called the "High", or "Theoretical" Hermeticism, namely - a set of ideas, recorded in the texts of the Hermetic Corpus and related works. Hermetic enclosure was obviously created in the II-IV centuries. as a result of the activity of a little-known community or communities. Strictly speaking, before us is a series of prophecies or interpreting prophecies of texts, the main difference of which from traditional ancient collections of oracles is that the purpose of the revelation here was not any specific circumstances related to the life of an individual or the destiny of the state, but the rationale for the hermetic image life and hermetic (theurgic) practices. In the treatises Pemaidr and Asclepius formulated cosmology, theology, as well as the historiosophy of hermetism, and within the last Holy Land Egypt is declared (and even predicted its apocalyptic death in the future). A very important place in the "Corpus" anthropology is assigned. Man here is declared the best of the divine creatures and occupies a central position in the universe. It is not surprising that hermetic texts will be extremely popular in the Renaissance.

The central figure of hermetic treatises is the prophet Hermes Trismegistus (Three times the Greatest). The very image of it arose as a result of the unification of Egyptian notions of the god Tota, the bearer of all possible wisdom, the creator of writing and mathematics, and the Greek notions of Hermes, the messenger of the gods, who, according to Greek mythology, leads souls to another world, and consequently possesses knowledge of the reality of the divine , human and the afterlife. Probably, the name of Hermes could be ritually referred to as the elder prophets in the community (see the testimony of this in the "Asclepius").

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A careful reading of hermetic texts allows one to discover in them the influence not only of Jewish, Christian or Gnostic literature, but also of ancient wisdom. These texts, of course, created educated, knowledgeable Hellenic literature authors who were familiar with the school philosophy of that time. As a result, we see in hermetic tracts the development of the ideas laid down in the "Timaeus" and in the cosmologies that have arisen under the influence of Aristotle's works: these are the concepts of the hierarchy of the heavenly spheres, the divinity of the stars, the special nature of the higher levels of the sensory cosmos, the notion of the special role of the demiurge of this world and the Whole Soul (in the Hermetic connected with the image of the First Person). But the most profound influence on hermetism was rendered by the platonic ideas about the soul and its migrations connected with reincarnation, therefore in hermetic texts the images from the "Phaedrus" are easily guessed. and Fsdon & quot ;. The concept of higher reality has a number of calls for Neoplatonism, although we can hardly talk about the direct influence of the Neoplatonists because of the chronological framework of the creation of the "Corpus" and features of the Egyptian mentality of that time. However, it is the synthesis of the Neo-Platonic and Hermetic views that in its time will have a significant impact on the revival culture.

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