# and the whole, the system - Philosophy for technical universities

## and integer, the system

System - is an integral collection of elements in which all elements are so closely related to each other that they act in relation to the surrounding conditions and others systems of the same level as a single whole. Element - is the minimum unit in a given integer that performs a certain function in it. Systems can be simple and complex. A complex system is one whose elements are themselves seen as systems.

Any system is something whole, representing the unity of parts. Categories of the whole and parts are correlative categories. No matter how small a particle of things we take (for example, an atom), it is something whole and at the same time part of another whole (for example, a molecule). This other whole is in turn part of some larger whole (for example, the animal's body). The latter is part of an even larger whole (for example, the planet Earth), etc. Any available to our thought an arbitrarily large whole is ultimately only a part of an infinitely large whole. So, you can imagine all the bodies in nature parts of one whole - the universe.

By the nature of the connection of parts, different integrity is divided into three basic types of integrity. The first type is unorganized (or summative) integrity, for example, a simple cluster of objects similar to a herd of animals, a conglomerate, i.e. mechanical connection of something heterogeneous (rock from pebbles, sand, gravel, boulders, etc.). In the unorganized whole, the connection of parts is mechanical. The properties of such a whole coincide with the sum of the properties of its constituent parts. In this case, when objects are part of the unorganized whole or come out of it, they do not undergo qualitative changes.

The second type of integrity - organized integrity, such as an atom, molecule, crystal, solar system, galaxy. The organized whole has a different level of ordering, depending on the characteristics of its constituent parts and on the nature of the relationship between them. In an organized whole, its constituent elements are in a relatively stable and logical relationship.

The properties of the organized whole can not be reduced to the mechanical sum of the properties of its parts - the rivers "lost in the sea, although they are in it and although it would not have been without them". Zero is nothing in itself, but as part of the whole number, its role is significant. Water has the property of extinguishing the fire, and the constituent parts of it separately have very different properties - hydrogen itself burns, and oxygen maintains combustion.

Third type integrity - organic integrity, for example, the body, biological species, society. This is the highest type of organized integrity, system. Its characteristic features are self-development and self-reproduction of parts. Parts of the organic whole outside the whole not only lose a number of their significant properties, but they can not exist at all in a given qualitative certainty - no matter how modestly the place of this or that person on the Earth and how little that he does, , necessary for the whole.

Investigating some whole, we analyze the corresponding parts by analyzing it and find out the nature of the connection between them. This or that system can be understood as a whole only as a result of clarifying the nature of its parts. For example, the nature of atoms could not be determined until the data on their complex structure were obtained and until they were theoretically presented as systems. But it is not enough to study the parts without their connection with the whole - the one who knows only the part does not yet know the whole. The abundance of particulars can obscure the whole. Any single item can be correctly understood when it is analyzed in isolation from the system, but in connection with it.

No field of knowledge can do without the categories of the part and the whole. These categories have enormous methodological significance not only in science, but also in art. The artist, for example, knows very well that in the correct ratio of the part and the whole, the hidden mystery of the artistry of the work is kept. When you listen to good music, you feel that every note in it is defined by a common theme. The problem of the ensemble in architecture also demonstrates the amazing relation of the whole and its parts in the same way.

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

[...]

## Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

## How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)