Anthropogenesis and the concept of creationism.
In the original text of this chapter, this section was missing, which is understandable: creationism as the concept of the supernatural creation of the world and man exists in virtually every culture within the framework of myths or religions inherent in this culture. But in many cultures there are variants of a fairy tale about the princess-frog. However, none of the biologists will seriously study the mechanism of the instantaneous transformation of the frog into a girl, since the text of a fairy tale, existing in culture, to science, nevertheless has nothing to do with. Since the proposed textbook sets out the basics of a specific science , in it religious concepts can act solely as an object of investigation, but not at all a way of explaining sociocultural phenomena.
However, in 2014 two manuals on anthropology have been published, which actually propagate theological theses. Since, along with the proposed textbook, the student has the right to apply to these benefits, it is impossible to leave these publications without comment.
And. E. Lukyanova and V. Ovcharenko about the concepts of creationism and evolutionism state: "it is advisable to expound both doctrines as equivalent scientific theories until a consensus is reached among the majority of scientists of different worldviews" . At the same time, they neutralize the half-century of achievement of a whole complex of sciences in substantiating the idea of evolutionism extremely simply - "is not confirmed by anything."
Claiming this in relation to the main theses of the evolutionary theory, the authors conceal from the reader numerous scientific arguments accumulated by science in favor of such theses. In their opinion, nothing is confirmed "the spontaneous generation of the living in the lifeless" . At the same time, he is silent about the famous experience of S. Miller and G. Urey, who in 1953 modeled the initial state of the Earth and obtained self-education of 22 amino acids from inorganic substances, they do not talk about the theory of Academician AI Oparin, about the general theory of chemical evolution and biogenesis of A. P. Rudenko (1969), etc.
Claiming: "there is no agreement on the doctrine of universal evolution and with the general law of entropy growth" , try to revive the idea of "thermal death of the Universe". This ignores the half-century experience of synergetics as a theory of self-organization of complex systems that reliably substantiated that in the universe, along with entropy growth processes, processes of self-organization, growth of order, emergence and development of complex systems occur in the open systems. The comic of the situation is that the concept of the supernatural origin of the world and man, IE Lukyanov and VA Ovcharenko, is attempted to justify a reference to natural laws.
The authors set forth the biblical premises of creationism: "the entire universe, the Earth, the living world and man were created by God in the order described in the Bible", "God created on a reasonable plan both single-celled and multicellular organisms and in general all kinds of flora and fauna , and also the crown of creation - the person and yet, while criticizing the mechanism of evolution, which is thoroughly studied by modern science (but not yet fully explored!), they do not consider it necessary to say a word about the "creation mechanism" and about the specificity of the "reasonable plan" that the Creator allegedly used.
Claiming that the thesis of evolutionism is "unconfirmed", the authors do not bother to show how the biblical theses have been confirmed, other than indicating that they "have a self-consistent and non-contradictory explanation" . They do not consider it necessary to demonstrate, for example, how it is possible to combine the biblical picture of creation and the facts of modern paleontology in a consistent manner.
Contrary to the wishes of the authors, creationism and evolutionism can not be taught as "equivalent scientific theories". Creationism is not only not a scientific theory, but it is not a theory in general: the main task of the scientific theory is explanation, the biblical truths are postulated and need no explanation.
The authors of another manual devoted a lot of pages to the comparison of evolutionism and creationism. A scientific comparative table of theses, characteristic for each of the concepts, and the observed facts is composed. However, in this book, the idea of creationism is tentatively presented as the only possible direction for the further development of science.
In detail expounding the views of the Catholic philosopher T. de Chardin, the authors come to the conclusion that these views "show the main way in which the outlook of Western society has gone, and which our national natural science is now turning." And at this turn comes back to those truths that were previously the result of religious, mystical cognition .
But is Western society homogeneous and all scientists are of the same worldview?
Is not our natural science - this is something undivided and turning but the command "all of a sudden"? All naturalists, without exception, "turn"?
Is mysticism and science the identical forms of mastering the world?
Is not truth the problem that is relevant only for science? Has mysticism ever been preoccupied with the problems of truth?
The authors do not have answers to these questions.
Evolutionary theory has many "weak points" (some of which have already been considered in this chapter), and the more it is criticized, the clearer the direction of further scientific search, including for socio-cultural anthropology. However, it does not follow from this that the theory of creationism will suddenly become a scientific one and will instantly help to get rid of all ills: God is a god, and science is "science"!
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