Anthropology of everyday life and historical anthropology
The problems of everyday life constitute the main subject of the study of historical anthropology. The most detailed analysis of the formation of historical anthropology in United States literature was conducted by MM Krom. He notes the cyclical nature of the development of historical science throughout the 20th century:
- positivism of the late XIX century. characterized by the fact that historical works were mainly descriptions of great events and great people;
- by the 1950s. the story of "great duration" won; but since the early 1970s. historians started talking about the "return of the event" and political history in the field of research;
- since the late 1980's. the increased attention of researchers again attracts a unique and individual in history: "the phase of anthropologization occurred at a time when the historiographical" pendulum " Started a return motion from the analysis of still structures to the study of motives and behavior strategies of people - real actors in the drama of History .
Title historical anthropology It became widespread only since the early 1970s. due to the tendency to interdisciplinary relations. American researcher D.Sebiai emphasizes that by the beginning of the 1980s, through the efforts of historians and anthropologists, "a common ale was formed - historical anthropology, which stated that both history and ethnography must deal with changes. & lt; ... & gt; The subject of the study were codes of classification, time and space schemes, concepts and practices of exchange and reciprocity, as well as problems of honor, authority and authority . Thus, the constitution of historical anthropology can be attributed to the 1960-1970s (according to M. Crome) or to the 1980s. (according to D.Sebianu).
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Note that there is another interpretation of historical anthropology, involving historical reconstructions. According to L. Tegako, "in anthropology we are talking, first of all, about biological reconstructions, which allow to say about the physical type of man" . Obviously, with this approach, historical anthropology is part of physical anthropology. In the future, we will only consider its socio-cultural option.
Historical science has long been interested in the activities of "great" personalities, the analysis of major events that had a turning-point in the history of individual countries and of mankind as a whole. A new approach to the object of historical knowledge was formed within the historical school that developed around the magazine "Annals of Economic and Social History", organized in 1929 by French historians Mark Blok and Lucien Feb.
The revolutionary changes in historical science that occurred thanks to this school (L. Febvre, M. Bloch, J. Lefevre, F. Braudel, J. Le Goff, J. Revel, etc.) consisted in the replacement of the classical narrative stories problem history & quot ;. Scientists began to explore not only and not so much the activities of great people as society as a whole, trying to reveal the deep structures that existed during the great historical segments. To do this, they attract the results of research on archeology, the history of technology, linguistics, sermons, the lives of saints, and others.
The founder of historical anthropology is rightly considered the most prominent representative of the school "Annals" M. Blok. His book Wonderworker Kings (1924) is devoted to the study of the notions of the supernatural character of royal power, namely the faith of the medieval French and English in the ability of kings to heal scrofula by imposing their hands. In fact, M. Blok examines the system of medieval mentality, stereotypes of medieval mass consciousness.
Applied to the world of everyday life ethnographer, culturologist, historian, anthropologist address questions:
- How is this culture created and how does it function in everyday life?
- than live, breathe, what do the people who create it hope for?
- what are their customs, customs, views, prejudices, habits, fears and ideals?
There are two areas of research within the "Annals" school.
1. The study of the material side of everyday life, the scientific analysis of that world of things. and the social space formed by them, within which life unfolds.
A series of works by F. Braudel, the first of which is "The structures of everyday life: the possible and the impossible", is devoted to solving such problems. The titles of the chapters of this book are illustrative: "Daily bread", "Excess and usual: food and drinks", "Excess and usual: dwelling, clothing and fashion", "Money", "Cities" and others
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2. The study of the system of mentalities , the everyday spiritual world and its content of views and experiences. It is important to understand the implicit motives of preferences and experiences that are incomprehensible to a person of a different culture.
A significant contribution to the development of history of mentalities introduced L. Fevr. He raised the question of the qualitative difference in the way people think and feel from different periods of time from the modern way of thinking. Innovative in this sense is his study "The problem of disbelief in the XVI century." Religion of Rabelais (1942). Thus, L. Fevre contested the preconceived notion of Rabelais as a freethinker and an atheist, and showed that Rabelais and his contemporaries did not yet have such concepts, from the material of which a new picture of the world, characteristic of rationalism and atheism, could be formed.
In the UK, the initiative of interdisciplinary research came from anthropologists, primarily from E. Evans-Pritchard, who contributed to the convergence of history and anthropology.
In 1970, A. McFarlane, based on the diaries of an average Puritan, published the book "The Family Life of Ralph Josselin, Priest", with the subtitle "Essay on Historical Anthropology". The author was interested in the everyday details of his life: economic cares, thoughts about God, about sin, etc. In 1971, a fundamental monograph by K. Thomas was published. "Religion and the Decline of Magic: A Study of Folk Beliefs in the 16th-17th Centuries." in England about the popular beliefs of the British of the same era: magic, prophesies, faith in spirits and fairies, astrology, etc. Both books bring together a clearly expressed anthropological orientation: both authors draw for comparison ethnographic material relating to non-European societies.
M. Crom emphasizes that the greatest influence on the formation of historical anthropology was provided by the works of four authors: EL Ladury, K. Ginzburg, N. 3. Davis, II. Burke.
In E. E. Ladury's book "Montailles, an Oxitan village from 1294 to 1324" (1975) examined the materials of 478 interrogations of the villagers, who were held by the bishop of the mountains. Pamier Jacques Fournier: he was entrusted with an inquisition study for the identification of Albigensian heresy. These interrogations made it possible to present the peasant life in every detail, from birth to death, including sexual relations, love and marriage, health care, communication in the church, etc. E. Ladury, like an anthropologist, as if asking the peasants about their life and on the basis of their "answers" reconstructs the leading aspects of rural life.
American historian Natalie Zamon Davis in the work "Society and culture in France of the beginning of modern times" (1975) reveals how in the XVI century. interacted in the lives of French citizens and peasants religion, culture and social processes. She is looking for "order in disorder": were there some rules of "kingdoms (or abbeys) of disorder" established on Christmas or carnival holidays when the world turned upside down? She believes that the parody abbeys first appeared in the villages and represented groups of young people who exercised a kind of moral control over the behavior of their peers (primarily in the sphere of marriage and sexual relations).
The Italian historian K. Ginzburg book "Cheese and worms. The cosmology of the miller in the sixteenth century. wrote but to the materials of the records of the Inquisition and showed the history of the literate miller Domenico Scandella. On this material, he sought to identify the characteristics of the so-called folk culture, believing that one case can be representative.
English historian P. Burke in the book "Historical anthropology of Italy of the beginning of modern times" with the subtitle "Essays [on the history of] perception and communication (1987) analyzes "collective representations", as well as forms of communication of Italians in the 16th-18th centuries. He reconstructs the "ethnography of oral speech", the oral culture of Italy of that time, studies various forms of applying letters in commerce, family, church, etc .; The attempted reconstruction of the "insult system" with its own rules conventions, stereotypes.
These publications are united by the fact that an object limited to time and space (one city, one village, one unusual biography of "a man from the people") is selected for research.
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