Arabian East and Muslim "science", Sacral and rational knowledge...

The Arab East and the Muslim "Science"

A different attitude to fussy the sciences were in the thinkers of the Arab East. The time when Christians were just groping for other ways of learning, for the Arabs was the golden age of processing of ancient knowledge and its assimilation. The spheres of faith and reason were institutionalized in them as follows: questions of the theory and practice of Islam were dealt with by ulama (alima), questions of speculative theology based on reason, and not on following religious authorities, - mutakalims. Mutakalims laid the foundations of kalama - knowledge based on logical reasoning. Kalam, in turn, became the basis for the development of the philosophical knowledge of the Arabs, including their "secular" branches. Nevertheless, the dispute of faith and reason here also took place (it was relevant for all three of the Mediterranean world religions, since all these cultures grew up in the Hellenized world and accepted Aristotle, they had common scholasticism). By representing the extreme rationalist position of Averroes, who, in fact, put Aristotle above Scripture, and philosophers above theologians, argued that philosophers of truth should speak only among themselves, and if they commit such stupidity that they come to the square, they will not be understood, are stoned, and it will be right, because only the prophets can go to the square with truth. [8]

Interest in Greek fiction (especially Homer's epic poetry) largely became the basis for Arab interest in other aspects of Greek knowledge. However, not only Greek - Indian knowledge had no less influence on Arab scholars (algebra and arithmetic). However, it should be remembered that Indian mathematics and astronomy in the early Middle Ages continued to exist mainly in the form of texts - their "golden age" remained far behind.

Figures of Arab scribes appeared not in an empty place - even in the V-VII centuries. Christian Nestorian heretics who fled from Byzantium, settled in Persia, bringing with them not only works of religious orientation, but also books of ancient authors on separate fields of knowledge. The conquest of Persia by the Arabs did not change much the situation with the spread of ancient knowledge - many of the Arabs were Christians, which sometimes meant their acquaintance with the Greek heritage. Such was Hunayn ibn Ishak (an interpreter who lived in the 9th century), and one of the fathers of the Orthodox Church, John Damascene, was one. In the courts of the Arab caliphs, the Greeks also lived. For example, the court astronomer of the caliph Mahdi I (770s - 780s) was Theophilus of Ephesus, who translated Homer into Syrian.

In the IX century. appeared immediately a whole constellation of philosophers, most of whom lived in the territory of Mesopotamia (Al-Kindi, Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Fergani). And of course, the peak of this fruitful period - Al-Farabi (872-950) - is perhaps the key character of early Islamic science. This Arab scientist, apparently derived from the Farab region (the southern part of present-day Kazakhstan), became one of the best interpreters of Aristotle. It is no accident that his followers called Al-Farabi Second Teacher (The first for them was Aristotle). Farabi, like most of his contemporaries, was a practitioner, 100 works are the result of long reflections on the essence of knowledge, their place in society, about the structure of society itself.

Sacral and rational knowledge in Western Europe XI-XIV centuries: new approaches and new challenges

The expansion of the field of interests of European intellectuals in the mature Middle Ages is associated, first of all, with the expansion of the circle of communication.

Completion of the conquest of Spain, active trade were much more important than the crusades, which almost did not affect the expansion of the outlook of European intellectuals, the illiterate crusaders were not going to bring scientific treatises, giving preference to material values. Recovering Spain from the Moors led to the fact that the Arab knowledge, accumulated in the libraries of Spanish cities, being unclaimed for a while, turned out to be interesting and instructive. The prohibitions on the study of Aristotle's books on natural philosophy (the Decrees of the French bishops of 1210 and the Charter of the University of Paris from 1215) are easily avoided by replacing this name with a neutral "Teacher" ( Philosopher ). The corporation of translators, which appeared in different cities of predominantly Southern Europe as intermediary organizations between Christian merchants and Arab traders, soon outgrew their short-term tasks, translating not only trade agreements and lists of products sold, but also scientific and literary works. The quality of the translations was different, because the translation process itself was not always straightforward - sometimes first the Arabic translation was translated into local dialects (most often this was Spain, where the Jewish translators lived, who owned Arabic and local languages), and from these adverbs was made the second is in Latin. But the translation into Latin did not mean the completion of the process - sometimes it was necessary to edit the finished translation so that it was understandable to the reader.

Nevertheless, the interpreters' corporations in Toledo, Palermo and a number of other cities became "factories" that formed the book climate of Western Europe. Already in the XII century. Arab intellectuals become authorities for European scribes - the names of Geber, Ibn-Rushd, Ibn Sina and Al-Farabi are mentioned in Latin texts along with the names of Aristotle, Plato, Galen and the Church Fathers.

The process of accumulating knowledge does not seem to change outwardly, but now the book of the scribe is not limited only to classifications of knowledge and clarification of what can be investigated. Attempts are being made to discuss the essence of certain processes or natural phenomena. For example, the phenomenon of the transformation of metals Albert the Great explains the presence in nature of cyclicity: "They [the metals] go one into the other in a circular fashion. Neighboring metals have similar properties, so silver is easily converted to gold [13, 94].

In the XII-XIII centuries. Forming universities, where they prepare "theorists" for intellectual battles - theologians, philosophers, lawyers, doctors. It was these specialists who were most often graduated from the four main faculties of an ordinary medieval university. Doctors are classified as "theorists" not accidentally - a doctor with a university degree most often did not perform any operations, he only diagnosed and prescribed treatment, transferring the patient to doctors of lower skill or pharmacists. An exception in this series was the medical school in Salerno (a city in Southern Italy), the basis of which was practical activity based on the doctor's knowledge of human anatomy, plant properties.

The scholastic method of teaching, formed in the debate on religious topics and honed already in university debate, demonstrates the great attention of the medieval scribe to the word. The word is the basis of preaching (the main way of communicating with parishioners), the Word is the basis of the book (silent, and therefore more powerful) knowledge, the Word is Christ. To call means to define, understand, build a system of connections with other words-concepts. It is not by chance that such a great value during almost the entire epoch of the Middle Ages was the work of Isidore of Seville (VI-VII cc.) "Etymology". In this book, the author treated words that relate to almost all areas of human life.

Classification of knowledge and during this period is an important part of philosophical works. But there is an important difference from the earlier works of the scribes: the classification is considered as the first step to introduce the reader into the world of knowledge in order to then bring it to a different, higher level of understanding knowledge, in addition, the range of this knowledge is gradually expanding, , which are of practical importance. At the same time, logic became the basis for the classification of sciences. Logic went to the Middle Ages as an inheritance from the epoch of Antiquity and became in fact the basis of the proof of this or that phenomenon, the explanation of the qualities of the object, etc.

"Science in the Middle Ages was basically a book affair, it relied mainly on abstract thinking; in direct appeal to nature, she used, as a rule, methods of observation, she saw her goal not to promote the transformation of nature, but sought to understand the world as it appears in the process of contemplation, not interfering in the natural course of events and not guided by considerations of practical benefits [5, p. 37].

One of the important outcomes of the period XI-XIV centuries. became the design of the three main areas of philosophy - realism, conceptualism and nominalism [5, p. 174]. These directions arose around the dispute about the nature of universals (general concepts). Realists (after Plato) argued that the general concepts are real, nominalism, on the contrary, connected reality with individual things, conceptualists occupied some middle position. However, it is rather difficult to examine each of the directions of medieval philosophy separately: their bearers somehow contributed to almost all of these directions. Particularly noteworthy is nominalism, in which elements of other trends are also found. Here the direction of thought that leads to empiricism of the New Age developed.

I must say that nominalism, for all its speculativeness, limited only by verbal descriptions, nevertheless in some ways became the basis for the physics of modern times. For example, Ockham, and then Thomas Bradwardine of Merton-Kollsja Oxford (about 1290-1349 gg.) Formed a separation of the doctrine of motion for dynamics and kinematics. Merton group (Thomas Bradwardine, William Heightsbury, Richard Swainshead, John Dumblton) actually proposed to treat kinematics not from qualitative positions ("top-bottom", "hard-soft", etc.), but from the quantitative standpoint. However, the discussion of qualities in the study of motion continued to be actively used - in the works of Merton College, kinematics was supplemented by the doctrine of the intensity and remission of qualities, and the qualities were understood not only as physical but also ethical qualities. The mathematical apparatus for describing the mechanical motion proposed by the Mittons was a particularly abstraction. The only concept close to the mechanics of modern times was the concept of the intensity of motion and the so-called degree of speed (this concept was to quantify the intensity of motion). "The theorem on the average degree of speed (the introduction of the concept of average speed of motion) certainly influenced Galileo Galilei when he created the theory of free fall of a body [4, p. 315-322]. These and other ideas were developed by the French philosopher N. Orem (about 1323-1382 gg.).

Against the backdrop of these theoretical in Europe the XIV century. Practice developed - astrology and alchemy. Their fate is bizarre - born at the decline of Antiquity, they quite happily existed until the XVIII century. Such a long life was due to their proximity to the practical needs and aspirations of man - wealth, health, the desire to plan their lives and learn their future. Philistine alchemy with its desire to quickly get gold or the elixir of life irritated many intellectuals who started from the idea taken from Aristotle, that the essence of things is unchanging, so the transformation of one thing into another by mixing with other entities is impossible. The position of intellectuals is expressed by the famous characteristic of the alchemist, given by S. Brant in the poem "The Ship of Fools" (1494):

Alchemy is an example of how the rogues are fooled with duries And how the rogues live - do not strain.

Told us Aristotle prophetic:

The essence of things is unchangeable, "

The alchemist is in a learned delirium

Displays gold from copper ...

True alchemists, such as Albert the Great (1200-1280), who valued their reputation and knowledge, quoted other words attributed to Aristotle: "It is not for nothing that Aristotle says:" I do not believe that metals can be transformed into one without the other, in order not to be turned (transformari) into a nerve, that is, brought to the state of ashes by burning on fire. That's when it's possible [turning] " [1, p. 6] (today these words are attributed to Avicenna, however Albert the Great was confident of their "Aristotelian" origin). In addition, the techniques of the alchemist's work and his tools became the basis for chemistry.

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