Aristotle and Lycia, Aristotle's Life - History of Ancient Philosophy

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Aristotle's Life

Aristotle (384-322 BC) came from the Greek city of Stagira, located on the eastern shore of the Chalcid Peninsula (hence the second name of the philosopher - Stagirite) . His father, Nikomah, belonged to a number of hereditary physicians, which is probably due to the peculiarities of Aristotelian terminology and his obvious interest in the biological field of the study of nature. Nikomah was the court physician of the Macedonian kings, and in the future the connection with the Macedonian royal court will play an important role in the life of Aristotle.

In 367 BC. Aristotle arrived in Athens and joined the Platonic Academy. Apparently, there he immediately showed his extraordinary philosophical talents: perhaps that is why Plato named him one of the participants in his dialogue "Parmenides". Some modern scholars believe that the Academy is already beginning a polemic between Aristotle and Plato, which, inter alia, prompted the latter to discuss the topic of eloquence in the dialogue "Phaedrus", to create the doctrine of "chorus" in Timaeus and to the formation of the concept of limit and unlimited in Philebe & quot ;. If this is so, then we must admit that the foundations of the metaphysics of Aristotle began to take shape precisely in the Academy. It is believed that Aristotle taught in the school of Plato the rhetoric and the "method of logos", which in the future will form the basis of his "Organon" - a collection of works devoted to the concepts of concepts , judgments and logical output (i.e., everything that we now call "logic") . In the late Antiquarian literature, a concept is formed about the rivalry between Plato and Aristotle, which began in the Academy in the last years of Plato's life. Aristotle even then began to oppose himself to the teacher, and after the decision of Plato to leave the school Spevsippu, he, along with Xenocrates, left Athens (it is likely that there were political reasons for this departure).

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For several years, Aristotle lives in Assos at the local ruler of Hermias (friend of Plato); then he finds himself in Mytilene on about. Lesbos, from where in 343 BC. sent to the Macedonian court. King Philip of Macedon required a tutor for Alexander's son, and he invited a pupil of Plato to this role, who by that time had gained fame and, besides, his father was associated with the Macedonian court. At least four years Aristotle performed the functions of educator and maintained friendly relations with Alexander the Great until the end of their lives. In 335 BC, after the establishment of the Macedonian hegemony over Hellas, Aristotle returns to Athens, where he acquires the right to teach philosophy, although he was an outsider, who was usually not given such a right. The place of teaching he chooses gymnasiums next to the temple of Apollon of Lycia, and also peripat (place for walking) with him. In connection with this, the Aristotelian school is called the Lycée or the Peripatetic School: Aristotle himself led many classes, walking along with the disciples. Likey establishes Museion and the Library - this structure of the scientific and educational institution will later be reproduced in the form of the famous Alexandrian Museion and the Library.

In Athens, Aristotle wrote or completed his basic philosophical writings. At the same time, an encyclopedic project of a scientific description of all spheres of natural and human existence accessible to knowledge was undertaken here. Here, for example, he writes treatises on the morphology of the animal kingdom (Animal History, About Parts of Animals and many others), generalizes the experience of social and political construction in the history of Greece and some barbarian states (a description of 158 constitutions, of which The only thing that came to pass was "Athenian polity", "Aristotelian" Politics "- the result of this research), creates works devoted to physics, astronomy, cognitive problems, psychology, art theory, etc. Here he completes the works in which he expounds his conception of logic. We know that Aristotle also wrote dialogues, which, alas, did not reach us. Unfortunately, only fragments survived from his academic "On philosophy," considered the most important "exoteric" the product of Stagirite.

Aristotle's famous writings Physics and Metaphysics owe their appearance to the events of the 1st c. BC, when the library of Likeya was confiscated by the Roman commander Sulla and was taken to Rome. Here, Tyrannion, and then Andronicus of Rhodes copied, dismantled and systematized texts unknown to a wide range of subjects, small tracts, perhaps - lecture notes, dividing them into two groups. One of them was called "Physics". (it included texts on the philosophy of nature), and the other - "Metaphysics", i.e. "that after physics".

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After the death of Alexander of Macedon in 323 BC. in Athens, the anti-Macedonian movement begins. Since Aristotle belonged to the Promacedonian camp, he was charged with religious wickedness. Aristotle was forced to flee to Chalcis (a city on the island of Euboea), where he died in 322 BC.

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