Aristotle and Stagir - Philosophy course of lectures

Aristotle and Stagir

Aristotle is a disciple of Plato. The legacy of Aristotle is so vast that it must be classified by fields of knowledge. A man in Aristotle is a reasonable being, designed primarily for virtue, prone to mental labor. In human ethics, Aristotle recognized as the highest virtuous activity the contemplative activity of the mind. This was affected by the characteristic of slave-owning Greece's disdain for the physical labor of slaves in contrast to the intellectual - the privilege of free people. In the doctrine of society, he argued that the relations of slavery are rooted in nature itself. The moral pattern of Aristotle is God, or the most perfect philosopher, "thinking thinking." In general, a man from Aristotle is one who has reached a certain position in society, the slave is not so. Arguing about Aristotle's views on man, it is worth to evaluate his natural science work, since they have a direct relationship to society and people living in it. First of all, those who comprehend the doctrine are made more perfect, and, therefore, more useful to society.

The surviving works of Aristotle can be represented as follows:

• Works on logic called "Organon";

• the doctrine of the beginnings of being called "Metaphysics", that is, after physics, and physics meant natural science;

• natural science work;

• essays that address the problems of society, state and law, as well as historical, political, ethical and aesthetic issues.

From the creative heritage of Aristotle, there are multiple conclusions, including those relating directly to the person, his place in the world:

• First, Aristotle connected the world of ideal essences and things. Plato's ideas he called the "forms" when the idea of ​​a thing and the thing itself are in close unity. A person acts as a being, not in isolation from what is happening;

• Secondly, Aristotle's materialism and idealism were more spontaneous, although he carried out a criticism of Plato's idealism purposefully. It is he who is credited with saying: "Plato is my friend, but the truth is more expensive!" Here lies his attitude to all people who are able to comprehend the world and give it an objective assessment;

- thirdly, based on the recognition of the objective existence of matter (heule), Aristotle considered it eternal, uncreated and indestructible. Matter can not arise from nothing, nor can it increase or decrease in its quantity. Matter, according to Aristotle, is passive. Its forms are active, matter and form are inseparable (for example, marble and a statue made of it). Under the form Aristotle meant the preceding thing an active, creative factor, through which it becomes reality. The form is an incentive and a goal, and matter is a kind of clay. In order for a variety of things to emerge from it, it is necessary potter - God or mind is the first. In this judgment of Aristotle, the attitude toward a reasonable person capable of changing the surrounding reality is significant;

- the fourth, in epistemology, Aristotle stood on natural, materialistic positions. The study of the world consists in the discovery of forms, but to achieve this we must not go from the forms themselves, but from the reality given to us. The role of man lies here in his ability to cognize the surrounding reality as it is;

- Fifth, Aristotle was one of the first to develop a classification of forms and ways of rational thinking. His teaching on the most common philosophical concepts or categories: "the number of" and Quality & quot ;, relation and entity & quot ;, space and "time", as well as others, with which he sought to express the dialectic of being and thinking, was an undeniable contribution to the theory of scientific knowledge. He tried to convey this knowledge to the students who subsequently developed them - the school of peripatetics, in parallel, paying tribute to knowledge about the person, they were engaged in historical biographies, literary criticism and popular ethics;

- Sixth, Aristotle is the founder of formal logic, just as Plato is a dialectical logic. Logic is the main subject taught in the Lycée (Aristotle's Lick). The tradition continued after the death of Aristotle, Theophrastus. Likey essentially combined the "functions of a scientific school with functions of a higher school" (science + education + upbringing). Many people came from Likey, who later became worthy citizens of Greece;

- in -seven, are interesting his socio-political, civil-legal views outlined in the work of "Politics" and some others. The method of politics as a science is a method of analysis. This is what, as applied to political action, means the role of the state; the elucidation of what elements it consists of and how it is realized. Aristotle defines the state as "the form of a community of citizens using a known political device." The political system presupposes the rule of law. In the political system, Aristotle distinguishes three parts, but the main thing is citizens. The state consists of citizens. Here it is concluded and the principle of social structure: the political and the public are closely interrelated. Citizens are people directly involved in governance: in legislative, administrative and litigation. Aristotle calls it "the absolute notion of a citizen". Therefore, a person by nature, he characterizes the "political being". Aristotle is a consistent supporter of the state. The goal of a human community is not just to live, but much more to live happily. " In his opinion, this is possible only in the state. But Aristotle, in its historical time, can not solve and does not solve the internal human problem of the state and society - slavery for it is natural. It is good for one to be a slave, but to another master. Slavery was considered a fact quite real and God-pleasing, and before the emergence of public consciousness human-type was still very far.

Aristotle (384-322 BC), Ancient Greek philosopher, educator, founder of the peripatetic school. He was born in the Stagir breed in Thrace in the family of Nikomakh, the doctor of the Macedonian king Amina II. Before reaching the age of seventeen, Aristotle went to study in Athens and ca. 368 d . BC became a listener of the Platonic Academy, where he stayed 20 years as a listener, teacher and full member of the commonwealth of Plato philosophers, constantly communicated with Plato. In the Academy of Plato he was formed as an independent thinker, critically, but with respect to the teaching of the teacher. Aristotle found in Plato a leader and friend whom he admired, and although later he was captured by his own scientific interests, he had long been influenced by the metaphysical and religious ideas of Plato. After Plato's death, he left the Academy together with

Xenocrates and settled in Anternee (the Academy was headed by the nephew of Plato Spevesipp, with whom Aristotle did not have a relationship). Around 343 BC Aristotle accepted the invitation of the Macedonian court to become the tutor of the 13-year-old Alexander, the son of King Philip of Macedon, the future of Alexander the Great, and for three years served and lived at court in Pella. Service at the Macedonian court greatly expanded the outlook of Aristotle. When Alexander ascended the throne, Aristotle left Macedonia, having fulfilled the mission of the teacher, and Alexander the Great in recognition of his teacher rebuilt his hometown of Stagir, in which he left. At the age of 50, Aristotle returns to Athens and opens his own school near the Temple of Apollo of Lycia. Classes the philosopher conducted in the alleys of the garden, walking along it surrounded by students, in connection with which the latter began to be called the "peripatetic", i.e. strolling (from the word Hebrew, - [covered] gallery, which served as a lecture hall). Unlike the Platonov Academy, Aristotle's Lycee is an educational institution and a scientific union. In 323 BC he was prosecuted on charges of "crime" against religious principles, as it was with Anaxagoras and Socrates. Without waiting for judgment, Aristotle left Athens and disappeared in Chalcis on Evia near the eastern shores of Attica. A year later Aristotle died: he had a stomach illness, which he suffered for many years, the disease was hereditary. Diogenes Laertius retained Aristotle's will, in which they reasonably rewarded relatives and friends, as well as servants and slaves. However, rumors were spread by ill-wishers that Aristotle committed suicide, although everyone knew that he categorically denied suicide, and his actions never went against his beliefs.

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