Axiology of Social Work
The leading tasks the axiology of social work: 1) identify how social work is rooted in the world of social values (with reference to social work as an institution and activity); 2) to reveal axiological, value aspects of scientific research activity (with reference to the theory of social work). Value is the property of an object or phenomenon to matter to people in a cultural, social or personal relationship.
The axiological aspects of social work can be represented in four aspects.
The first aspect concerns the study of the process of development of those values, the formation of which ultimately caused the formation and development of social work itself as a specific kind of human activity. This aspect can be summarized as values for social work.
The second aspect is connected with the consideration of the place of social work in the system of societal values. In a general sense, this place turns out to be unstable and is defined as the degree of development and specificity of social work itself, as well as the peculiarities of the type of society whose cultural phenomenon is this system of social work. This aspect will be called social work as a value.
The third aspect concerns the study of the system of social values within social work, regarded as a specific kind of professional activity. Let us emphasize that this is the third aspect of the axiology of social work that is being developed most actively. Denote it as values in social work.
The fourth aspect concerns the value factors of the formation and development of the theory of social work. Generalized essence of this aspect is related to this or that answer to the question: "Can the theory of social work be free of values?" It can be referred to as the values of the theory of social work and value in the theory of social work.
Consider some of these aspects.
Values for social work. This aspect is based on the complexity, diversity and differentiation of the world of values. For importance for man and mankind values can be divided into higher and lower.
Higher (sometimes called absolute, which is not entirely true, since their genesis is associated with the emergence and development of man) values are values not because they serve for something but on the contrary, everything else acquires significance only in the context of higher values. These values are enduring, meaningful at virtually all stages of human development (at least civilized). As a rule, the following values belong to the higher values:
- universal (world, humanity)
- social (justice, freedom, human rights);
- values of communication (friendship, love, trust);
- cultural (world outlook, ethnic);
- activity (creativity, truth, good, beautiful);
- the values of maintaining the biological preservation of mankind; sometimes they say - vital, or vital, values; they also use the term "meaningful values", but in this case it is not just about the biological existence of man and mankind, but also about its social fullness (life, health, children);
- personal qualities (honesty, patriotism, loyalty, kindness), etc.
Lower (relative) values are a means to achieve any higher goals, they are more subject to the influence of circumstances, changing conditions, situations, more mobile, time of their existence more limited than the higher values. There are other criteria for differentiating values.
We emphasize that the basic values of social work are precisely higher values. The axiological aspects of social doctrines and ideals ultimately formed value orientations of professional social work.
Public good, justice, responsibility for support of the defenseless, social justice, well-being of people - values that gradually became the main dominant philosophical interpretation of the process of socialization of man. We emphasize that the idea of "good" is the backbone of this set of values. It is from the analysis of the development of the concepts good and Charity in ethics and philosophy begin the consideration of the history of the value foundations of social work, in particular, KV Kuzmin and BA Sutyrin.
Indeed, the emergence of philosophical knowledge and its axiological problems was originally associated with the elucidation of the question: "What is the good for man and what are the forms of his existence?"
In the era of Antiquity Democritus believed that the good and the goal of life is happiness in the forms of harmony (symmetry in everything); ataraxia (tranquility), etambia (fearlessness), etc. Socrates considered wisdom to be the highest good as the unity of knowledge, the choice of good and the practical realization of virtue. Epicurus thought that the highest and first good is pleasure as the absence of suffering.
In the era of The Middle Ages the highest good was considered good, understood as something that everyone wants. So, in Thomas Aquinas, good coincides with God.
In New time the benefit is already divided into public and personal. F. Bacon believed that the public good should always prevail over the personal. The highest manifestation of the public good, according to F. Bacon, is debt as a person's duty and obligations towards other people.
B. Spinoza identified the good with reason and freedom, understanding under freedom the submission of passions to reason. As the most important value of B. Spinoza also considered life, put her on the order of magnitude higher than death.
And. Kant placed man at the center of his philosophy. The historians of philosophy believe that I. Kant ends the tradition and period of consideration of values as goods , and from him begins the stage of understanding value as meaningful for the person./strong> The category of duty lies at the basis of the axiology of the philosopher, because, according to I. Kant, it is the sense of duty that provides the path to the good that makes sense only in the human dimension. On this basis I. Kant also formulates his moral imperative (unconditional categorical behavior): a person should be treated only as a goal, but never - as to the means. From the categorical imperative follows the most important conclusion: the highest value is the person himself. So the supreme value in the hierarchy Now the axiological foundation of social work. Submission of a person to the requirements of a categorical imperative allows him to gain yet another value - freedom.
The idea of the values to some extent varied in different civilizations (which determines the difference between civilization and types of social work). So, East civilization is focused on collectivism, traditionalism, adaptation to the environment, and its core values are egalitarianism, humanism, justice, cult community, honoring parents and senior, authoritarianism.
Western civilization focuses on individualism, on the interests of the individual, on adapting the environment to the interests of the individual. In this regard, the key values of Western civilization are freedom, leadership, individuality, equality , etc.
In Eurasian civilization, the orientational orientations of the East and the West are combined in a peculiar way. For the system of values of the United States people as one of the main representatives of Eurasianism, collectivism, is rooted in the community; patriotism, worked out by the centuries-old struggle for independence; mutual aid, openness, trustfulness, tolerance, spirituality, anarchy and even, according to NA Berdyaev, femininity. Eurasian values orient people not to adapt to the environment and not to a nihilistic approach to it, but to respectful-critical attitude to the past, the present and the future, to the individual and the collective, to all the values of their people. This axiological specificity of Eurasianism seems to be taken into account by United States social workers.
Thus, one value series of axiological foundations of social work is formed through the consistent historical development of the idea of "good". Another axiological series can be considered as a result of the development of the idea of "helping a neighbor", "altruism", "love of neighbor".
So, in Western axiology, the value of altruism is seen in the logic of ideas of individualism, where the feelings, thoughts and desires of an individual act as the highest self-worth. K. Popper, reflecting on the synthesis of individualism and altruism in Western civilization, wrote: "This individualism united with altruism became the basis of our Western civilization. This is the core of Christianity ("love your neighbor," says the Holy Scripture, and not "love your family"), as well as all ethical teachings developed in our civilization and accelerating its progress. "
The idea of helping your neighbor in the United States mentality is closely connected with the idea sobornost. Altruism goes back to community collectivism, to the ethical, moral idea of the nation as the idea of truth and justice. The outstanding United States philosopher Alexei Fyodorovich Losev (1893-1988) thus reveals the idea of catholicity: "It is not enough to say that United Statess have in mind the public, sociality, humanity and universality. There are as many people in England and America as are the public, and all French literature is full of social ideas. Here we mean sociality as the deepest foundation of all reality, as the deepest and most intimate need of every single individual, such as the sacrifice of which everything must be brought in.
Thus, by the time of the emergence of social work as a social institution recognized by society and the state in public consciousness, a wide and ramified conception of the nature, essence and structure of values was formed. At the same time, there was an idea of such a system of values, for the reproduction of which the institution of social work became necessary.
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