Basic categories of philosophy, General concept of...

Main categories of philosophy

General concept of categories.

Everything that a person knows about the world around him and about himself, he knows in the form of concepts, categories. Categories - are the most common, fundamental concepts of this or that science, philosophy. All categories are concepts, but not all concepts are categories. About the world as a whole, we regard the relation of man to the world in terms of categories, i.e. extremely general concepts.

Each area of ​​knowledge has its own specific categories. For example, physics uses categories such as atom & quot ;, mass & quot ;, energy and others. Biology uses the concepts "organism", "heredity", "variability" etc. But along with these people use categories that are peculiar to any science and knowledge in general. Specific sciences study the special relationships of phenomena that exist in one or another realm of reality. The task of philosophy is to study the most common links, laws that are characteristic of all phenomena of the world and thinking. Let us take, for example, causal connections. They exist in physical processes, in living nature, in society, and in thinking. Each science investigates causal relationships in relation to its field: the physicist studies the physical causal connections, the biologist-biological, etc. The common in all these causal relationships is the subject of the study of philosophy. Similarly, for example, with quality, quantity, form and content, essence and phenomenon, interaction, development, etc.

Categories are forms of reflecting the universal laws of the objective world in thought.

We have already met some of the main categories. This is primarily the categories of matter, motion, space, time, etc. But this does not restrict the system of categories. The history of philosophy has developed such categories as cause and effect, form and content, necessity and chance, possibility and reality, etc. These and other categories have been formed in consciousness as a person has faced billions of times with real cause-and-effect, time relations of things, their qualitative and quantitative sides and took them into account. Logical categories are forms of thought and definitions of being.

Expressing the framework of the world as it were, the categorical structure of thinking is very stable, but at the same time it is changeable, it is historical. Particularly mobile is the content of categories. Compare, for example, how we understood matter in antiquity and how this category is interpreted in the system of the modern picture of the world. The same can be said about others

categories, for example about the space, time, etc. considered by us.

As a result of the reflection of the objective world in the process of its practical transformation, categories become a means of cognition of reality with the aim of further broader and deeper transformation. Consequently, categories play a great methodological role in science. Without them, scientific thinking is impossible in any field of knowledge.

Basically, all other categories from different sides characterize the content, all kinds of manifestations of properties, relationships, development of existence: movement is a way of existence of existence , space and time are the forms of its existence. Quality, quantity, cause and effect and other categories - all this is also a characteristic of being.

Categories are interrelated and under certain conditions pass into each other: the random becomes necessary, the single becomes general, the quantitative changes entail changes in quality, the consequence turns into a cause, etc. This fluid interconnection of categories is a generalized reflection of the interconnection of phenomena of reality. All categories are historical categories, so that there does not exist and can not exist any one fixed category system, given once and for all. In connection with the development of thinking and science, new categories arise (for example, information), and old ones are filled with new content. Any category in the real process of human cognition, in science, exists only in the system of categories and through it.

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