Christian theology as the only true philosophy
Therefore, it is not surprising that philosophy retained the status of a universal discipline designed to explore and explain all aspects of social and individual life. However, in the Middle Ages, the place, role and tasks of philosophy in comparison with Antiquity underwent a significant transformation. It was based on a radical change in the very formulation of the fundamental problems of the world order. Already the Stoics estimated the virtuous life more in terms of the attitude of the soul to God than the citizen to the state. Following the Stoics, Christians were convinced that a person's duty to God is more important than his duty to society and the state.
The conflict between these two origins took the form of a struggle between the Roman Catholic Church and secular power, the pope and the kings of individual states. The winner of this struggle eventually came out the pope, whose ecclesiastical jurisdiction spread to Italy, France, Spain, Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, Poland.
After the acceptance of Christianity by the emperor Constantine, Christian theology gradually acquired political significance. Religion became the core, the core of the culture and world outlook of feudal society. Politics, law, jurisprudence in the hands of clergymen have become the applied branches of theology. Almost from the very beginning, the emphasis was placed on the postulate of the divine origin of power and the necessity of submission and inadmissibility of resistance to it.
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The Apostle Paul in his "Epistle to the Romans" He taught: "Let every soul be subject to the higher authorities; for there is no power not of God, the existing authorities of God are established. Therefore, he who opposes power opposes God's institution; and the opponents will incur the condemnation themselves. " The chief, Paul argued, is "the servant of God," therefore, one must obey not only for fear of punishment, but also for conscience. "
Justifying its claims to the supremacy of spiritual power over the secular, the church claimed that it received power directly from Christ himself, and therefore the unconditional duty of earthly sovereigns is to obey the head of the Christian church.
The founder of Catholic political thought of the early Middle Ages is the religious thinker Aurelius Augustine (354-430). Living at the junction of two worlds - ancient and medieval - Augustine developed his socio-religious and political concept in conditions, on the one hand, the growing authority of Christianity, and on the other - the weakening and disintegration of the Roman Empire, which led to its defeat by barbarians.
In the conditions of growing chaos and breaking political ties, previously cemented the Roman Empire, blessed. Augustine created his work "On the City of God," in which he raises questions about the state, the relationship between the two authorities - secular and ecclesiastical. In his opinion, the world is divided into "earthly earth", where injustice, disorder and all kinds of vices reign, and "the city of God", living according to God's established law, where peace and harmony prevail. Augustine believed that the hail of the earth must be reconstructed after the model of the city of God, as a model on earth already exists a pattern - the Christian Church.
In his scheme, God is an absolute unity, a higher being, an all-encompassing truth. Therefore, all cognition is the knowledge of God. At the same time, Augustine proceeded from the postulate of the original sinful nature of man. Because God is merciful, he, by his inscrutable destinies, endowed a part of people - the elect - with grace, thereby predestining them to eternal salvation. And no one knows who exactly is one of those elected. It was Augustine who first put forward the idea of the domination of the church over power and society.
However, while simultaneously confessing the belief in the free will of man, Augustine left behind him a choice between good and evil. The state seemed to him as the arena of sinful people in the quarrel of the kingdom. Accordingly, the church was attributed to the role of part of the kingdom of God, designed to save people from earthly sins. Therefore, argued Augustine, the state could become part of the city of God, only submitting to the church in all religious matters.
In the spirit of blessed. Augustine, Saint Ambrose , in particular, argued that, just as all the Romans owe their military service to their emperor, the emperor himself is obliged to serve Almighty God. Of particular importance in this regard was the assertion that the divine revelation did not end with the creation of the Holy Scripture, but continues through the church, and therefore an individual, including a monarch, must obey it. From this postulate was drawn a far-reaching conclusion about the subordination of secular power to the kings of the spiritual authority of the church.
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Thus, the principle of the supremacy of the spiritual power of the popes over the secular authority of all sovereigns was finally formulated. Papacy through the mouth of Pope Gregory VII proclaimed that secular power is only a reflection of spiritual power, just like the light of the moon is a reflection of sunlight.
The ancient world did not know the state separated from society and separated from the state of any sphere of people's life. In the Middle Ages, along with the state and outside it, there appears a religious institution - a church developing and defending different views not only on the world order, but also on the organization of power. Thus, a force capable of competing with the state began to emerge, a dialogue about the limits of power was conducted with it, and the idea of an external sociocultural regulator of power arose.
Practical realization of this idea is observed in attempts to establish in Europe Papacyzarism (the supremacy of the church not only in the spiritual sphere, but also its interference in state affairs). So, in the XI century. Pope Gregory VII made an attempt to extend the principle of the rule of power of the popes over the power of secular rulers. The document adopted under Gregory VII entitled "Dad's Diktat (1075) contains a paragraph on the right of the Pope to deposed emperors. According to this provision, the Pope especially closely follows the rulers and princes. If the king follows not after God and the church, but follows his will, he loses the right to power. The pope has the full right to punish and pardon, downcast the secular rulers or again give them power.
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