Cognition, practice, experience - Fundamentals of philosophy

Cognition, practice, experience

A person lives in an environment of peace, in an atmosphere of spiritual culture. He himself is an active creature. The endless threads of the material and spiritual properties are connected with the nature and events of social life, being in constant interaction with them. Outside of this interaction, life is impossible. We interact with the world primarily through our needs, from the physiological to the most refined - spiritually-spiritual. We need peace and practically transform it not only for comprehension of secrets. We comprehend its secrets to meet our material and spiritual needs. This is the historical meaning of the emergence of knowledge and sciences. Astronomy and the clock brought to life the need for navigation; the needs of agriculture gave rise to geometry; geography arose in connection with the description of the Earth, mechanics - with the construction art, and medicine brought to life the need to free people from illnesses or at least alleviate their suffering. With the development of society, the needs have all expanded and enriched, bringing to life more and more new means and ways of knowing - humanity can not rest on its laurels.

Practice is the sensory-objective activity of people , their impact on an object in order to transform it to meet their needs. With regard to cognition, practice plays a threefold role. First, it is the source of knowledge, its driving force, gives knowledge the necessary factual material, subject to generalization and theoretical processing. In this way practice nurtures knowledge, like the soil of a tree, does not allow it to break away from real life. Secondly, practice is the sphere of application of knowledge. And in this sense it is the goal of knowledge. Thirdly, practice serves as a criterion, a yardstick for verifying the truth of the results of cognition. Only those results of cognition that have passed through the cleansing fire of practice can claim to be objective, independent of arbitrariness and error.

It goes without saying that a person comprehends reality not alone. When they say that the knowledge of truth is based on experience , they mean hereditary information, the trail of which stretches to the depths of the past, the collective and accumulating experience of centuries. The experience of an individual being unconditionally isolated, even if it could exist, would obviously be quite insufficient to comprehend the truth.

Each area of ​​scientific knowledge, revealing the corresponding patterns, explaining a certain phenomenon, participates in the creation of a single picture of the world, in the formation of a worldview. Science, as E. Schroedinger noted, must also answer the question of who we are and why we came to the world. This has considerable and metaphysical, and practical meaning.

Practice not only identifies and indicates those phenomena, the study of which is necessary, but also changes surrounding objects, reveals such aspects of them that previously were not known to man and therefore could not be studied. Not only terrestrial, but also celestial bodies in which we do not change anything, appeared before our consciousness and are learned to the extent of their involvement in our life.

Following the knowledge of the forces of nature and society, sooner or later, practical mastery of these forces takes place.

Not only the sciences of nature, but also the sciences of society, have their basis in practice.

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