Consciousness as freedom, Consciousness as correlation...

Consciousness as freedom

The person's value-oriented (conscious) activity is not accomplished by virtue of a law, but by some pre-determined goal (the goal as the law determines the direction and nature of the action). Of course, such an action also obeys certain rules, but these rules differ significantly from natural laws:

the natural laws act on their own;

the rules people act on apply intentionally and can be changed, broken or completely ignored.

In other words, while natural laws act spontaneously, human behavior is determined by rules. These rules can be adopted as such by the actors themselves, but can > not to be accepted. This is human freedom, but it exists only in the sphere of human actions proper.

The rejection of what is "what is", on the grounds that this "should not be" - the setting is absurd from the point of view of classical determinism. Acceptance or non-acceptance of the world as such, as it is in its "available being", is an effective act of consciousness. This act requires a certain effort, aspiration and at the same time taking responsibility for the results of the realization of this aspiration. In different epochs different interpretations of consciousness were formed.

Consciousness as correlation with the divine

The ancient interpretation of consciousness does not presuppose either intentionality, or responsibility of man for the moral evil he commits. For example, ethical intellectualism of Socrates suggests a certain "automatism" in the realization of the good with the knowledge of it in the soul of man. The concept of sin as a consciously created evil arises much later, only in the Christian worldview.

Thomas Aquinas very definitely indicates that the very reference of knowledge to the object is an intentional act. After all, sensation is our inner experience, we attribute it to an object, defining our own sensations as its object - characteristics: apple red, round, sweet. In this correlation, as Thomas says, "the soul takes possession of the object, subordinates it to itself, makes its own judgment about it," it evaluates and, as it were, "judges" him. Thus, the act of comprehension of one's own sensory experience acts as a definite action with the "knowledge" and with his subject & quot ;. And this action presupposes not only the correlation of the object with its image, but also the correlation of the image and the subject with the idea of ​​the good, with the past experience and with the person's intent to the future.

It is through such a complex correlation in relation to knowledge that questions can be posed about what actions from it will follow and whether the result of these actions is good or evil. With this approach, consciousness is understood not as something substantial, but as an act, an action that does not have its own content, and existing as it were, "knowing" as a certain way of "handling" with it, the way a person relies on the content of his own knowledge. In this case, the due is understood as transcendental - established by God. However, this transcendental life-pot is acquired only as a result of the free decision of a person to follow the divine commandments. So, for example, a magnetic compass points north, but the decision to follow or not to follow its instructions remains with us. The activity of consciousness is the basis and condition of freedom; the most powerful manifestation of the spiritual nature of a person committing a free and responsible choice of his own destiny.

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