Correlation of knowledge and faith, Subject and object...

Value of Knowledge and Faith

First we will clarify what is meant by faith. According to Kant, there are three kinds of faith. A person's pragmatic faith in his rightfulness in a particular case; the price of such faith - one ducat . Belief in general terms is doctrinal. For example, the belief that there is no life on all the planets of the solar system. This belief contains in itself something that is not solid. It may be available to refute. Finally, there is moral faith , where the question of the truth of judgments does not arise at all. "This faith can not be shaken, since my moral principles would themselves be overthrown, which I can not refuse, without becoming in my own eyes deserving contempt" . To believe in God, according to Kant, means not to reflect on his being, but simply to be kind. Given that Kant identified morality with religion (the "moral law within us"), we must understand the broadly third type of faith as religious faith in general. Only it of all kinds of faith has value for the theory of knowledge. (It need not be said that faith "on one ducat", like the doctrinal certainty of a learned philistine, does not represent values ​​for knowledge itself, and for the theory of knowledge, they do not stand dialectics and are doomed to destruction.) Let us ponder Kant's thought. The truth of religious knowledge is not based on an external criterion. It has an ontological basis in the very existence of man. Although Kant formulates this in psychological terms ("I can not refuse without becoming in my own eyes deserving of contempt"), this thought is deeper and needs to be cleared of psychologism. Religious faith - is an inherent relationship with the real Truth (from Latin religare - bind), which constitutes the self; with the destruction of this connection with the absolute I perishes.

Subject and object of cognition

Cognition presupposes a duality of the world to the object and the subject. Whatever issues a person has solved in his life, whether theoretical or practical, material or spiritual, personal or social, he, according to IA Il'in, must always take into account reality, given objective circumstances and laws. True, he may not reckon with them, but by this he provides himself, sooner or later, a life failure, and maybe a whole stream of suffering and misfortune. So the consciousness is characterized by a constant going beyond itself - it is constantly looking for an object, and without it life is not in life.

The world exists for us only in the aspect of its being given to the knowing subject. The concepts subject and object are correlative. When we say "subject", we ask ourselves: "Subject of what - cognitions, actions, assessments?" When we say "object", we also ask ourselves: "What is the object of knowing, evaluating, doing?"

Ultimately, the supreme producer of knowledge and wisdom is all of humanity. In its historical development, lesser generalities are singled out, for example, in the form of separate peoples. In a society historically groups of individuals are distinguished, special purpose and occupation of which is the production of knowledge of special life value. These are, in particular, scientific knowledge, the subject of which is the community of scientists. In this community separate individuals are distinguished, whose abilities, talent and genius are determined by their high cognitive achievements. The names of these people are preserved by history as a designation of outstanding milestones in the evolution of scientific ideas.

The fragment of being, caught in the focus of the seeking thought, constitutes the object of cognition, becomes in a certain sense "property" subject, having entered into a subject-object relationship with it. Therefore, there is a reality in itself, outside of its relation to the consciousness of the subject, but is a reality that has entered into this relation. It seems to have become a "questioning" saying to the subject: "Answer me - what am I?" Know me! In a word, an object in its relation to a subject is no longer simply reality, but, in one way or another, the cognized reality, ie, reality. one that has become a fact of consciousness.

In modern epistemology, it is customary to distinguish between the object and the object of knowledge. Under the object of cognition, we mean the real fragments of being , under investigation. The object of cognition is the specific aspects , which the focus of the searching thought is directed at. So, man is an object of study of many sciences - biology, medicine, psychology , sociology, philosophy, etc. However, each of them sees a person from his own point of view (for example, psychology examines the psyche, the inner world of a person, his behavior, medicine - his ailments and ways of treating them, etc.). Consequently, the subject of research is, as it were, the actual installation of the researcher; it is formed from the point of view of the research task.

It is known that man is the creator, the subject of history, he himself creates the necessary conditions and prerequisites for his historical existence. Consequently, the object of socio-historical knowledge is not only known, but also created by people - before becoming an object, it must be created and formed beforehand. In social cognition, a person has to deal, therefore, with the results of his own activity, and therefore with himself as a practically acting being. As a subject of knowledge, he is at the same time his object. In this sense, social cognition is a person's social self-awareness, in the course of which he discovers for himself and explores his own historically created social essence.

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