Cosmology. The mind is the first one. - History of ancient philosophy

Cosmology. Um-translator.

Identifying the target reason, addition, "for what" a thing is created, as one of the main reasons for not only the emergence, but also the existence of a thing, enabled Aristotle to formulate the teleological concept of nature. As in art, where the process of manufacture is preceded by a goal, the existence of a natural thing is also determined by some pre-set goal: "If ... [things] created by art arise for the sake of something, it is obvious that existing by nature, for and in the works of art and in the existing by nature [things], the ratio of the next to the previous is the same .

The purpose of creating things through art implies some kind of human need, the satisfaction of which it is called upon to serve. To extract the maximum benefit from this or that created thing is possible only on condition that this thing fully corresponds to its purpose, i.e. has the optimal form for what it is intended for. But the achievement of an optimal form of a thing should not be viewed from a purely utilitarian point of view. The value is attached to things, first of all, by quality, quality (arete). If a thing is of poor quality, then its possibility has not been fully realized, the energy is incomplete, and therefore its functionality can not be found satisfactory. Thus, the idea of ​​the goal includes the concept of the best, most suitable for anything: "the goal means [not] every limit, but the best" . The purpose of a natural thing, as well as an artificial thing, is to achieve its optimal form. The prototype of such a perfect form is Aristotle's highest form, the form of forms, - mind, or the protvodivitel (to proton kinoyn ), i.e. something that as an ideal goal gives the movement everything. His essence is activity, but he himself is immovable, since he does not need movement: the latter is always a movement towards the goal, to completeness, to completeness, to perfection, and represents a transition from possibility to reality, while the first-hand engine is pure reality (actuality) , in which there is no potentiality whatsoever. He himself is the goal, the fullness of being, the perfection to which all things are directed and on which it depends.

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So from this beginning depends the heavens and all nature. And his life is the best, which we have a very short time. In this state it is always (we can not have it), because its activity is also a pleasure (therefore, wakefulness, perception, thinking is the most pleasant, and only through them - hopes and memories). And thinking, as it is in itself, is drawn to the best in itself, and higher thinking - to the higher. And the mind, through participation in the object of thought, thinks itself: it becomes the object of thought, coming into contact with it and thinking it, so that the mind and its object are one and the same. For what is capable of accepting the object of thought and essence is the mind; but he is active when he has an object of thought; so that the divine in him is, presumably, more a possession than a capacity for him, and speculation is the most pleasant and the best. If God is always as good as we are sometimes, then it is worthy of surprise; if it is better, it is worthy even more surprise. And that's how he is. And life is truly inherent in it, for the activity of the mind is life, and God is an activity; and its activity, as it is in itself, is the best and eternal life.

The perfection to which any existing thing strives, is attractive in that it is the best life where activity is pleasure, eudaimonia.

So, all things are filled with movement, because they strive for their actuality, imitating the mind as pure activity. Therefore, nature itself appears in Aristotle as a being continuum, which forms the triad dynamis-energeia-entelecheia, expressed in every individual thing in its possibilities, its reality and its completeness. Being manifests itself in the continuous activity of nature. The cosmos in the representation of Aristotle is eternal. Aristotle finds contradictions in the doctrine that there is some separate from the cosmos "the first moving", like the Mind of Anaxagoras or the demiurge of Plato. The expediency of the beginning, which eternally causes everything to move, leads also to the teleological picture of the world. The list of laws governing the world is finite (of course the number of "natures" contained in it). In addition, the Cosmos is finite in space. According to Aristotle, the eternal arising and annihilation is directed from the point of view of its physical "energies" eternally existing heaven. The heavenly bodies, although moving, have an indestructible, etheric, nature. The material principle in them is expressed in their movement, and not in the change of qualities. Each of the planets corresponds to a certain number of spheres that perform a uniform motion, and the "trajectory" The displacement of the planet is the result of their interaction. Thus, Aristotle advocates that model of the explanation of the celestial movements, the sources of which stood Eudoxus of Cnidus, and completed its development by Ptolemy in his "Almagest".

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