Development of ideas about scientific methodology in the history of European philosophy
Forming the idea of the doctrine of the method as some "right way" cognition is associated with the emergence of a philosophy that acts as a rational-theoretical form of the worldview and reveals all the ways of a person's relationship to the world, including cognitive attitudes.
In ancient philosophy the system of representations about the method contains Socrates's teaching, which, as an indispensable character in the dialogues of Plato, offers a specific methodology for seeking truth: revealing contradictions in the position of the interlocutor. On the basis of their permission, the possibility of a productive solution of the problem is formed. As a matter of fact, Socratic Mayevtic was the first historical form of methodology. Further development of the idea and practice of philosophical methodology was obtained in the writings of Plato and Aristotle.
The development of universal theoretical methods in ancient philosophy was a condition for the emergence of science as rational-theoretical consciousness , unlike the "receptive-technological" the way knowledge is presented in the pre-science that is directly related to practice. So, Started Euclid for a long time became a paradigm of the representation and construction of systems of scientific knowledge. The geometry of Euclid was fundamentally different from the ancient Egyptian "land surveying" just a thorough study of methods for deploying theoretical systems.
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The methods of scientific and empirical research are beginning to form: descriptions and classifications, primarily associated with the name of Aristotle. The development of methods of rational thinking in philosophy and science already in ancient philosophy had a pronounced projectively constructive character, as the methodology not only revealed already established methods and methods of activity, but actively formed the corresponding norms and methods. A vivid example of this is the syllogism of Aristotle.
In New time the doctrine of the method becomes the backbone of F. Bacon's classical philosophical doctrines,
P. Descartes, GV Leibniz, and others. The methodological ideal of classical science was most clearly manifested in the critical-reflective function of rationalist philosophical methodology. This function consisted in finding solid bases knowledge. The reduction to these grounds and the subsequent removal from them would allow the cognizing subject to fully control the entire system of genuine knowledge. Within the framework of the classical methodological ideal, both empirical-inductivistic and rationalistic-deductive methodology were developed. The development of these areas of the philosophical methodology of modern times was based on the real practice of scientific thinking: the methodology of empiricism was based on empirical research, the methodology of rationalism - on mathematics.
German classical philosophy considered the problems of the scientific method as the most important philosophical problems. In particular, the doctrine of the method occupied a central place in Kant's philosophy. His transcendental method was designed to identify the initial (a priori, pre-experienced) prerequisites for all forms of activity of human consciousness. Realizing the critical-reflexive analysis of scientific knowledge in mathematics and precise natural science, I. Kant forms a specific model of the methodology of science, in which the philosophical and scientific methodologies turned out to be closely related.
Later, the methodology of the speculative-philosophical type is dominant in I. Fichte (1762-1814), and especially in G. Hegel, as the dialectic. In the understanding of G. Hegel, the method is a self-perceiving "pure concept": "In science as such, there can be only one method, since the method is nothing but a self-explaining concept, and it is only one ... First we consider the concept ... in its universality, then in its features as a self-separating and self-differentiating concept ... this is the sphere of limitation, differentiation and finiteness, and finally, the concept closing itself in itself, inference, or the return of the concept from its certainty, in which it is not equal to itself, to itself, when The concept attains identity with its form and removes its limitations. " Thus, the method for G. Hegel is the organic life of the concept itself, this very existence in its semantic self-development, and the speculative nature of the Hegelian methodology is connected with the unauthorized ontologization of the method resulting from the objective-idealistic principle of the identity of thinking and being.
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In contrast to the Hegelian approach in the second half of the XIX - early XX century. methodological research is being developed aimed at real problems of scientific knowledge, including the works of P. Duhem, E. Cassirer, E. Mach, A. Poincaré, W. Wewell, and others.
Special attention is paid during this period to the development of the methodology of social, historical and human sciences, the sciences of culture (V. Windelband, G. Rickert, V. Dilthey, M. Weber, etc.).
Problems of the methodology of science in positivism. Positivism as an intellectual current flourished in Europe during the period of industrial transformation, when scientific discoveries were successfully applied in production, transforming the world, changing the way of life of people. Progress is obvious and irreversible, science turns into a social institution and defends its autonomy. The most important problem is the adequate scientific method.
The main program principles of positivism can be formulated as follows.
1. The affirmation of the primacy of science and the natural science method.
2. Absolutization of causality (causal - causal - laws are not only spread to nature, but also to society).
3. The theory of the development of society as a kind of social physics (as sociology is understood) pretends to the status of an exact science and is likened to the science of the natural facts of human relations.
4. The immutability of progress, understood as the product of human ingenuity, the belief in the infinite growth of science and scientific rationality.
In the development of positivism, several stages are distinguished: a) classical (first) positivism (O. Comte, G. Spencer,
J. Art. Mill); b. second positivism (E. Mach, R. Avenarius, A. Poincaré); c) neopositivism, or "third", logical positivism (R. Carnap, M. Schlick, O. Neurath, L. Wittgenstein, B. Russell, etc.); d) postpositivism (K. Popper, T. Kuhn, I. Lakatos, P. Feyerabend, and others). The positivists have continued the tradition of the Enlightenment, having reduced the sphere of reason mainly to scientific reason, therefore they can be considered carriers of scientistic values.
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