Disciplinary organization and interdisciplinary research. Subject-and...

Disciplinary organization and interdisciplinary research. Subject-specific and problem-oriented scientific disciplines

Science is a complex system, it has a hierarchical organization, covers large groups of people, breaks up into many constituent areas of it, etc., but this does not reveal the specifics of science. Usually, science is identified with a system of scientific knowledge: this view takes into account the links between individual scientific disciplines that are realized, for example, using mathematical knowledge in natural and technical fields, and natural science knowledge in engineering sciences, etc . The presentation of science as a knowledge system also includes specific ways of obtaining and organizing them, and, in addition, the functioning of science is considered with the aim of developing scientific knowledge, i.e. mechanisms for obtaining new knowledge in science. Concepts, methods, principles and other elements of science act as tools for obtaining, fixing, processing, translating scientific knowledge.

From a social point of view, science is a special organizational system, focused on obtaining new scientific results. In this sense, we can talk about the different organization of fundamental and applied research, within which different value orientations, the forms of scientific activity and ways of interaction between scientists operate. There are also different ways of organizing and managing research groups, which include, for example, drawing up plans or reports or their absence, the frequency of work performed, the forms of their socialization, formal and informal leadership, etc. A variety of types of interested groups can also be distinguished, in fact they represent numerous ways of organizing research: colleagues working in the same discipline; scientists involved in different disciplines; intellectuals organized through philosophical awareness or influence on culture as a whole; finally, technology, for which scientific results are interesting only in terms of their technological application.

Thus, science as an organizational system is usually viewed from the position of its organization and management, the possibilities of optimizing its formal and informal structures, forecasting and planning its development. To formal the organization of science is the official hierarchy, funding, administrative means, etc. Informal organization and management in science consist in belonging to various interested groups, scientists, orientation to certain values, public opinion, judgments of experts and informal leaders. It is necessary to distinguish between controlled parameters subject to change and control, such as the number of scientists, funding, etc., and uncontrolled parameters, which are recorded only statistically in a large array, for example, the productivity of an individual scientist.

The existing communication systems in science are included in various types of scientific practice: the improvement of the structure of scientific knowledge, the organization and management of science, the optimization of information services, and so on. For example, representatives of a certain scientific school formulate their belonging to it through relation to the existing types of knowledge, the ways of their systematization, the ideals of knowledge, and in this case they do not go beyond the system of scientific knowledge. However, at the same time, representatives of this scientific school are associated with the creation of institutions, participation in the activities of specific laboratories, publication in certain journals, i.e. with the organizational system of science. It is in the functioning of modern research activities that the correspondence and unity between the various systems of connections in science, between the system of scientific knowledge and organizational structures, are established. Thus, the way to carry out real scientific activity can not be understood from the standpoint of any one system of connections of science. At the same time, it is not enough to study only the functioning of modern scientific activity: it is necessary to analyze its genesis and development with the involvement of a specific historical and scientific material.

Improvement of the system of mass publications, periodicals, permanent conferences, etc. affects the pace of development of science as a system of knowledge and the degree of its impact on society. In turn, this entails a change in the organizational system of science (bureaucratization of science, planning its development and financing, etc.). Acceleration of the pace of obtaining scientific knowledge and shortening the terms of their introduction into practice have a reverse effect on the communication system of science. There is a need to improve the system of services, create information retrieval systems, solve the problem of selecting publications, rational use of time, optimize personal contacts, etc. Studying specific historical and scientific samples will allow us to trace and record the complex interaction of the system of scientific knowledge with its organizational structure. It is important to understand that modern science is a set of scientific disciplines, each of which has a complex structure.

Scientific discipline is a complexly organized hierarchical system that can be considered in two main aspects:

1) as a knowledge system that stands out with respect to a homogeneous and united thematic community of publications;

2) as scientific activity, representing a social system allocated to a stable scientific community, consisting of various groups of scientists and institutions.

At the intersection of these two interrelated systems, a specific scientific discipline is singled out. Representatives of this scientific community not only work in certain scientific laboratories and institutes, but also produce new scientific knowledge, which are reflected in publications. Scientific discipline includes several research areas and areas of research, as well as the organization of training - courses and chairs in higher education institutions (Figure 4.1). In addition, the scientific discipline assumes the existence of a limited and specialized research community having a special professional organization - laboratories, research institutes, academic councils, etc.

The structure of disciplinary science

Fig. 4.1. The structure of disciplinary science

Thus, in this case, science is characterized by external, social or informational parameters, which is important, but still insufficient to understand its functioning in modern society. In principle, it is possible to imagine such a case when a group of unscrupulous scientists is constituted into a new research direction, imitating a disciplinary organization, creating a scientific community in form, but not doing any scientific knowledge, but only using financial means, referring to each other in the empty publications, sitting in numerous useless commissions, etc. Of course, in real social life there are many mechanisms of control and self-control of science, but the above hypothetical example shows that, using only sociological parameters, it is impossible to distinguish real science from non-science, or fake, charlatan science, if a pseudo-scientific community in form is organized like a scientific community. In order to carry out such a distinction, in addition to research on non-scientific parameters, an analysis of the content of scientific activity is necessary.

thematic pictures

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