Essence of the nation - Philosophy for technical universities

The essence of the nation

Nation - This is a historically established transient form of community of people who, as a rule, have a common territory and economic life, language and spiritual warehouse, and to some extent, and biological identity (which often affects the appearance), as well as features of character, temperament and customs. And all this manifests itself in the uniqueness of culture.

In this community, the spiritual life of a nation, its culture is strengthened by all the personal powers of the subjects of the nation, and each of its subjects receives a source of creative energy in a nation-wide spiritual uplift. On this path, the love of one's nation unites with faith in it, in its vocation, in the creative power of its spirit, in its prosperity.

What are the origins of such a social phenomenon as a nation? The first specifically human form of community, which replaced the primitive herd, is genus - the kinship of people, the main unit of society. The genus was a group of people united by blood ties, collective labor and joint protection of common interests, as well as common language, customs, traditions.

The combination of several genera was tribe - a type of ethnic community and social organization of people. Its characteristic features: common territory, usually delimited from neighboring tribes by natural boundaries; economic community and mutual assistance of members of this tribe, expressed, for example, in collective hunting; common language, consciousness; common origin and blood ties. Due to the formation of tribal unions, accompanied by the strengthening of intertribal economic and cultural ties, military clashes, population migration, caused by the increase in the number of people, the emergence of private property, a gradual mixture of tribes, the replacement of former blood ties by territorial ties and the emergence of a new form of historical community - the nation, occurred.

The nationalities usually consisted of several tribes, close in origin and language or mixed as a result of the conquest of some tribes by others. In the process of folding the nationality, a territorial, cultural and, to a certain extent, an economic community was formed, which was often not of a sustainable nature. Nationality is a language, territorial, economic and cultural community of people. The formation of the state contributed to the consolidation of the people. But in the process of historical development, the places of natural residence of the people could not coincide with the borders of the state, either territorially or by language.

With the development of capitalist relations, economic and cultural ties strengthened, a national market emerged, the economic fragmentation of the given nationality was eliminated and its various parts rallied into a national whole - the nationalities turned into nations. Unlike the nation, the nation is a more stable community of people.

Nations differ from each other mainly by their world-historical role - each nation has contributed and makes its contribution to the treasury of world civilization and culture. The nation has not only something special - something that distinguishes it from other nations, but a common one - that which unites some of them: there are different nations speaking one language, or living in a common territory, or having much in common in their history , culture, life, psychology (for example, the British and North Americans).

The mind of history has created a great variety of nations, and all of them together represent a kind of special bouquet of flowers in the garden of social life, where each nation has its own unique flavor, as it glows with its own special aura. In this respect, a nation is in some ways comparable to a person. And how much would humanity benefit if people and nations learned to appreciate other people's national characteristics as their own.

The general climate of national relations depends to a great extent on the civil maturity of each person and the depth of understanding of the fundamental interests of his people, society and humanity as a whole. This is the basis of national identity. National consciousness is the feeling and self-awareness of the spiritual unity of its people and its cultural identity - customs, traditions, beliefs.

The national consciousness has a tremendous regulatory and life-affirming power: it helps to unite people of this nationality, acting as a kind of protective mechanism that allows to preserve continuity of the nation's integrity and sociocultural certainty in dealing with other nations and nationalities, counteracting the factors eroding the nation, for example, infringement of interests, assimilation, etc. National self-consciousness promotes the general cultural rise of the nation, its historical development in the inflorescence of other nations. So, every nation as a whole, as a social subject of social and historical life, rises, especially in the person of the most advanced representatives, to the realization of its public interests, the peculiarities of its culture, traditions, the current situation in the flow of life and prospects for development. She has her own "special mentality, a form of expression of feelings, in particular her sense of dignity and prudent pride. But everything should have its own measure. Just as the hypertrophied orientation of the consciousness of the subject to self leads to selfishness, the excessive conversion of the national consciousness only to the special in the national life and the hypertrophy of its significance can lead to nationalism. If the nationality is " , there is a fact that nobody ignores, then nationalism is also a fact - in the manner of plague or syphilis. The deadliness of this fact has become particularly sensitive at the present time ...

Nationalism is a form of manifestation of national egoism. The basis of nationalism is the idea of ​​national superiority and national exclusivity, which generates national arrogance.

Love for the Motherland, wrote P. Ya. Chaadaev, is a beautiful thing, but there is something higher - a love of truth. This we must never forget, because blind love for the fatherland brings us together with instinctive patriotism and leads the people sometimes to arrogance, self-conceit, self-exaltation, that creepy, blunt, nanosnoboltivom national vanity, which is often the property of people not only of little culture, but also educated

One of the temptations of nationalism, according to IA Il'in, is the desire to justify its people in everything and always, exaggerating his dignity and dumping all responsibility for what he committed to other, "evil-forever", treacherous- hostile force. But no influence of hostile forces can and should not extinguish the people's sense of responsibility and guilt or free it from sober critical self-knowledge - the path to renewal leads through repentance, purification and self-education.

Nationwide humanism revolts against the beginning of national exclusivity - no nation in the world has the right to such self-esteem. However great its economic and cultural achievements are, it can not pretend to be chosen and privileged. Each nation, by virtue of its specific historical position, has specific historical responsibilities to itself and to humanity.

A nation, if it wants to live a full-blooded national life, can not remain only one of the nations in the sea of ​​other nations - it needs to outgrow itself, feel more than a given nationality: it must immerse itself in supranational interests, in world-historical life of mankind. For any nation that has great natural and historical data, it is not at all natural to become self-absorbed and live only for oneself, constantly emphasizing its own national self, and worse, to impose it on others. This would mean renouncing true greatness and personal-national dignity, in essence, renouncing oneself and its calling and role in the world-historical progress of mankind.

There is a simple truth: the higher the national self-awareness of the people, the stronger the sense of national dignity, with greater respect and love, it refers to other peoples. Any nation becomes spiritually richer and more beautiful when its heart is warmed by the respect of other peoples: without genuine love for mankind there is and can not be a real love for the homeland.

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