Everyday life as a world of experience and practice...

Everyday life as a world of experience and practice: basic approaches

Everyday - the usual, ordinary and ordinary; what is considered "self-evident". Domestic researchers treat everyday as "the process of individuals' life activity, which unfolds in well-known situations on the basis of self-evident expectations." . Theoretical study of everyday life is difficult, precisely because in everyday life everything seems self-evident, and a person turns out to be included in the culture of everyday life, primarily through his subconscious. J. Le Goff specifically stressed that everyday "especially needs definitions, because by its nature has no clear boundaries" . However, modern humanitarian knowledge lacks a unified approach to understanding everyday life. In particular, everyday life is trying to determine by choosing terms that are close in meaning. Thus, the German philosopher-phenomenologist B. Waldenfels calls everyday life and everyday life synonymous. Domestic researchers VE Davydovich, EV Zolotukhina-Abolina note that "the everyday world is a reality formed by ordinary consciousness, woven from its images, attitudes and values" .

L. G. Kostyuchenko and Yu. M. Reznik characterize everyday life as a fundamental reality, noting that most people live in it. Therefore, this world is perceived by a specific person as a natural, unchanging and predetermined order of life, part of the individual's life process, which includes the "routine", the recurring life phenomena and the associated conditions for the reproduction of its life activity "(preceded by the manifestation of institutions and other organizational forms of living together) .

A number of researchers are keen to characterize everyday life through their structure. The concept of "daily structure" F. Brodel in the analysis of the main spheres of everyday life of Europeans in the XV-XVIII centuries. Among the components of the material structure of everyday life, he considers: dwellings , clothes , fashion , interior, technology, luxury goods , cash , plans for villages and cities, food, prices for grain, food and drinks, etc. Such items, at first glance, are not related. However, F. Braudel emphasizes that, in essence, "we are talking about the languages ​​of culture with everything that a person introduces them, introduces gradually, unconsciously becoming a prisoner of these languages ​​in the face of their daily cup of rice or their daily piece of bread" . A. Lefebvre characterizes everyday life through related categories in which the everyday world of man is described: totality, reality, alienation, experienced, spontaneous, ambiguous, practice.

The components of the structure of everyday life in different authors are called differently: constants, categories, determinants, fundamental units. Let's show the positions of some domestic researchers.

Oh. A. Markovtseva singles out the "basic structures": immediacy, existence, experience, meaning, language, sign, text - and believes that "their integrity is established as the basis of everyday existence, the condition of which is itself human consciousness . NN Zarubina identifies such components as life, work and training, interpersonal relations and family, maintaining health, rest, consumption, ways of movement and many others.

Q. D. Leleko plays an important role in the spatial and temporal characteristics of everyday life and on this basis distinguishes the "basic zones of the everyday space": the body of the person, house as locus of space, settlement as an area of ​​maximum daily space. Novikov also considers everyday life through the prism of spatial characteristics and distinguishes in its structure the space of life , the space of the objective world , the space of everyday reflection , the space of human experiences .

L. P. Stankevich and I. P. Polyakova distinguish in the structure of everyday life "four elements": activity , need , consciousness and ability and on this basis characterize the "integrity of everyday life", believing that it "is hidden in harmonization , on the one hand, all its spheres (professional activities, activities in everyday life and leisure) and on the other - inside each of the spheres based on the identity of the four designated elements .

E. L. Orlova shows that each area of ​​professional activity corresponds to a certain area of ​​everyday existence: in the field of social organization, economic culture corresponds to the household (it is included in the sphere of life support), political culture - interpersonal and informal group relations, legal - customs and moral norms.

In the field of knowledge, various superstitions correspond to superstition in everyday culture, ordinary art aesthetics, leisure, decorations, etc., the everyday worldview corresponds to philosophical concepts, and practical knowledge and experience correspond to scientific knowledge. Medicine, associated with human corporeality, in the field of everyday life corresponds to folk medicine. Professional games in everyday culture correspond to games for recreation.

And. T. Kasavin and S. P. Shchavelev singled out two approaches to understanding everyday life: ontological, body-behavioral, subject-matter, activity-event and psychological and epistemological. As characteristics of the ontological approach, they distinguish: the unconditional the need for every person of his daily worries; non-alternative; inevitability; repeatability; cyclicity ; rhythm; closedness (contours) of typical spaces of daily life; conservativeness of the ordinary beginnings of life and forms of culture; Sustainability ; averaging , commensurability to an ordinary person & quot ;; mass view; privacy. These characteristics form the image of everyday life, or the life of a representative of the social community.

Psychological-epistemological approach, in their opinion, is intended to reflect the subjective dimensions of "its same distinctive characteristics" .

From this position, everyday is considered as mandatory , constant , habitual , completely predictable , voluntarily selectable , recognizable , committed semi- or even completely unconsciously.

Austrian sociologist A. Schütz believes that everyday life is that "area of ​​reality that an adult waking person standing on the position of common sense finds as an unconditional given" . In a number of works, he singles out a spectrum of features of everyday life:

• the existence of stable forms of activity, patterns of achieving standardized goals in the form of traditions, rules, habits that are not questioned and applied without additional thought;

• a complex dialectic of stability and variability, the existence of its history, during which routine rules are established and transformed almost imperceptibly for the actors using them;

• The intersubjective nature of everyday life, its rooting in the interpersonal relationships of small "domestic" groups;

• awake intense attention to life;

• accepting the existence of the world "without evidence and doubt";

• community in time: not only the external (chronological), but also the internal time of the individual;

• a set of values ​​that we must interpret in order to gain support in this world;

• the predominant form of activity is labor activity.

Reality and work activity enter into a close functional connection: the working people act as an integral self, because labor most fully activates all the potential qualities of the individual, endows them with unity, and the main function of everyday life is life support. Quite a special place in the everyday system of the idea of ​​ Houses. In L. Schütz's phenomenology, House is the "zero point" of the coordinate system that we ascribe to the world in order to orient in it " . The life of the House includes the entire set of stable, self-evident forms of life activity and methods of interpretation shared by the group in the system of intersubjective interactions.

Not only the structure, but the very concept of everyday life turns out to be "fluid," it seems to "slip away" from the hands of the researcher. At one time, N. Elias tried to identify the characteristics of everyday life in their comparison with the "non-everyday" (Table 11.1).

Table 11.1

The basic meanings of everyday life in opposition to non-everyday life (according to N. Elias)

Everyday Life


1. Everyday Life


2. Everyday Life = Routine

Unusual, unroutinized public areas

3. Everyday life = Working day (especially workers)

The area of ​​life of the bourgeoisie, people who live off profit, i.e. do not work

4. Everyday life = Life of the masses

The life of dignitaries and rulers (kings, princes and princesses, presidents, members of the government, party leaders, members of parliament)

5. Everyday life = Event areas of everyday life

All that the traditional political description of history considers as the only important and "big event"

6. Everyday life = Private life (family, love, children)

Social or professional life

7. Everyday life = Sphere of normal, non-reflex, truthful experiences and thoughts

The sphere of reflex, artificial, scientific experiences and thoughts

8. Everyday life (the consciousness of everyday life) = Incarnation of ideological, naive, ill-conceived and false experiences and thoughts

True and True Consciousness

Thus, N. Elias tried to give the concept of everyday life through its opposition to non-everyday life and came to the conclusion that in the early 1980s. the history of everyday life is still "neither fish nor meat"; . To a certain extent, B. Valdinfels agrees with this approach, which argues that, unlike the everyday, the non-everyday exists as an unusual, out-of-the-ordinary order, far away. Although one should be cautious with actually given specific forms of order, yet no human culture is inconceivable without opposing the everyday and non-everyday .

The process of the formation of the sphere of everyday life B. Waldenfels successfully refers to "ordination", which means, first of all, the embodiment and assimilation of what is included in the "flesh and blood" rights. This includes: memorizing language expressions, learning scales and chords, handling instruments, targeting in urban areas or in open areas. Here, knowledge and skills acquire reliability that is never completely replenished by artificial methods .

Everyday activity of a person is regulated, as a rule, by such established algorithms of behavior that are most effective for achieving the goals of activity. It is thanks to such algorithms that there are significant characteristics of the world of everyday life, everyday life: prescription, normality , standard.

These same characteristics are also characteristic of ordinary consciousness. In particular, it includes representations accepted by a person on faith , without a thorough check on the truth. In everyday consciousness, there is a system of prerequisites for everyday, to a certain extent routine and standard for recurring social situations, human behavior. This system of prerequisites includes: belief in a certain order of the world order, confidence in the established socio-cultural institutions, recognition of shared fundamental assumptions about the nature and structure of the world.

Therefore, while on service in everyday human practice, ordinary consciousness as the leading tools for regulating human behavior uses norms and values, prescriptions and prescriptive formulas, appeals and prohibitions that form quite rigid patterns of human behavior. However, such rigidity and prescription is compensated by the flexibility of "common sense", through which a person adjusts the algorithms of activity in relation to changing situations.

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