Features of the pre-Socratic type of philosophizing
Taking into account the above, we turn to the description of the features of the early Greek type of philosophizing. Something has already been touched upon in the preceding paragraphs, namely the specific question with which philosophical thought at its very beginning turned to the world. This question is the meaningful side of pre-Socratic philosophy. Formal its side forms a style of philosophizing, which without exaggeration can be called poetic in all senses of the word. The first and obvious meaning is that early thinkers, not yet possessing a developed philosophical glossary, or a system of terms, used poetry (primarily Homer) as the source from which they drew the form of expression for their philosophical intuitions. Simply put, it was the language of poetry that was the language spoken by the early Grecian philosophy. Another meaning, less obvious, is related to the very semantics of the Greek word poiesis, which is a name that denotes an action and originates from the verb poreo - to do, create, create. Thus, every philosopher, and especially one who stands at the sources and at the disposal of which there is still no established philosophical language, is forced to create, create it himself. One of the most brilliant philosophers of the twentieth century, G.-G. Gadamer, argued that "philosophy is a constant effort to find a language or ... a constant torment of language shortage" . The lack of a dictionary for the expression of philosophical ideas is due to the fact that philosophers direct their attention to what usually escapes from the sphere of ordinary interest. And what, in fact, eludes? Being absorbed in everyday life care, a person is doomed to disregard what, on the one hand, goes beyond this vital concern, and on the other - is so closely connected with it that in its habitual and ordinary life it goes unnoticed as a matter of course. This is the usual and commonplace, with which a person encounters every minute, which is always present in his everyday experience, is precisely the most difficult to understand and define. The great achievement of the first Greek (European) philosophers is that they turned their attention to this simplest and at the same time the most difficult and tried to express it in a word.
Greek match to - is logos. Although in Greek the word logos is used in the most everyday situations and stable expressions like logo - ergo ( in words - in fact ;), it also includes such semantic potencies that allow it to easily and naturally fit into the philosophical context. Alternating with the root log - , the root leg - forms the verb lego, which, in addition to the meaning of "speak", has the meanings of "collecting", ; count & quot ;. Thus, logos has the force of the connection: After all, when we say connect sounds (phonemes) into meaningful Unities, considering - we unite objects by number, and collecting - we unite something into a single group. This is how the first philosophers sought to embrace the whole world in its unity in one single word: logos. If we had to reconstruct a question that may have confounded early thinkers, then it is highly probable would be formulated as follows: "Why is the world that appears before us as a set of associated things and events, for all its multiplicity, still one?"
Where did the ancient philosophers take those same words, through which they expressed their understanding of the unity of the world? From his own experience, formed not the last, but perhaps the first, turn of poetry. We have already mentioned the role of poetry in the formation of the language of the early Greek philosophers and will speak more in detail when it comes to the key concepts of pre -ocratic philosophy. In the meantime, we note such a feature of early Greek thought as its In other words, the first philosophical works in the history of European tradition were brief sayings. Of course, we can not exclude the fact that only fragments of once-important and significant works of volume have reached us. However, we are forced to judge the archaic thought precisely on the basis of the scanty evidence that is at our disposal.
In addition to the language of the early Greek sages, the philosophical position itself differs from their followers. Two questions immediately arise here. First: are we right to say that those thinkers, who in their works never called their activity "philosophy", were philosophers, ie, had a philosophical position? And the second: what is this philosophical position? These issues are interrelated in such a way that it is difficult to decide which answer to begin with.
Let's start with the first one. Diogenes Laertius at the beginning of his doxographic work notes:Studies of philosophy, as some believe, began for the first time with the barbarians: namely the Persians had their magicians, the Babylonians and Assyrian Chaldeans, the Celts and Gauls had the so-called druids ... Yet a big mistake was to ascribe to the barbarians the discoveries Hellenes.
Then he reports:
... Philosophy philosophy [pjatomodem] for the first time began to be called Pythagoras ... The wise man, according to him, can only be a god, not a man. For it would be premature to call philosophy "wisdom", and exercising in it "wise man", as if he had already sharpened his spirit to the limit; and the philosopher [ likewise ] is simply someone who is attracted to wisdom.
According to the testimony, Pythagoras (570-490 BC) not only gave philosophy its name, but also pointed to its essence: philosophy is not wisdom , but the pursuit of wisdom. The question arises: should we connect the beginning of the philosophical tradition with Pythagoras on the grounds that he called philosophy philosophy? Is the phenomenon born only when it receives a name? On this account, there are at least two points of view. According to one, "we can not talk about the appearance in culture of any phenomenon, object or fact until the culture itself is aware of it and, fixing it, does not call it" ; so believes the modern domestic historian of philosophy Yu. A. Shichalin. Hence, we should start with Pythagoras. If, however, to listen to another point of view, it turns out that the first philosopher is Thales (circa 625 - circa 547 BC): "Thales, in fact, only the history of philosophy begins " , - confirms G. V. F. Hegel.
In order to decide who is still at the source of the philosophical tradition, it is necessary to find out what it means to be a sage or a philosopher. If philosophy is a love of wisdom, wisdom (friendship, love, Sofia - wisdom), then the philosopher is someone who loves wisdom. Pythagoras teaches us: love wisdom means strive to her. And what is wisdom? Let us return to the testimony of Diogenes Laertius about Pythagoras as the author of the concept "philosophy" . According to Diogenes' testimony, Pythagoras maintained that only God is wise, but not man: that God seeks to the full extent to which man seeks. In other words, God has everything. Therefore, a person, striving for divine wisdom, seeks to have everything at his disposal. But what is this all , which the Greeks called ta panta (pronoun of the genus of the plural) or to pan (pronoun of the kind of unit number)? How can all be available at the same time as all ? Of course, in the everyday sense it is impossible: on the contrary, the more we have, the more we are lacking. All can be all only in the mind: to see a lot of things as all can only be the mind, and, encompassing everything like , we unite it, and it turns into one. Thus, ta panta becomes to hen - single, or single.
In our everyday, everyday life, we never deal with everything: the world always appears fragmentary before us, only our assistants and the things we need at the time, which we use , completely without thinking about what they are. We are surrounded by multiplicity and variability: something always appears, but something disappears, something is born, and something is dying. Multiplicity and variability are part of our everyday experience and require the ability to find the best path, overcoming complexity and temptations, i.e. to be and "highly experienced", like Odysseus. Constant concern with everyday affairs, involvement in this daily routine does not allow you to get rid of it and look at the plural and changeable as all, to embrace it with a single glance - the Greek. theorem, ie. behold & quot ;, contemplate . At the moment when the human eye turns to everything as all , freeing from involvement in the ever-changing multiplicity, and there is a philosophy. In Aristotle's language, both now and before, the surprise prompts people to philosophize, and at first they were surprised at what was directly perplexing, and then, little by little moving forward thus, they wondered about the more significant " .
We have heard testimonies according to which it was the Thales of Miletus who first began to reason about everything, assuming the beginning of all water.
Thus, the answers to the above questions:
1) Do we have the right to say that those thinkers who in their writings never called their work a philosophy were philosophers; 2) what it means to have a philosophical position - can be the following.
1. The assignment to any kind of activity of a name that this activity has not previously called itself can not be considered an event of fundamental importance for this activity (neither the author of the Homeric epic nor the ancient tragedians knew that they were engaged in literature, but their texts were undoubtedly literary works ). This or that phenomenon acquires a name in the process of its self-determination, and is not born with it.
2. Even before Pythagoras (according to testimonies) called philosophy philosophy , a special mental position was formed with respect to all that was that the diversity and variability observed in the world were seen as necessary manifestations a kind of single beginning, through which the world, despite all the changes: movement and peace, birth and death, continued to exist just like the world, in all its unity.
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