Peculiarities of the interrelation between political philosophy and sociology at the stage of their formation
In Ch. 4 more or less detailed touched on the issue that a number of scientists, considered the founders of a social and humanitarian discipline, acted simultaneously as philosophers, political scientists, sociologists with the addition of the adjective "political". Here we limit ourselves to a reminder that R. Aron considered S.L. Montesquieu not only a philosopher, but also a sociologist. It is significant that E. Durkheim read special courses about Montesquieu and Rousseau as predecessors of sociology.
One of the major sociologists of the XIX century. G. Spencer in his works "Basic Principles", "Foundations of Sociology", "Foundations of Psychology" sought to create a system of synthetic philosophy and developed the ideas of organic and evolutionary sociology. His version of the organic theory can be attributed equally to both philosophy and sociology.
The relationship between philosophy and sociology is found in social Darwinism. One of his representatives, L. Gumplowicz considered social groups the subject of sociology, and the continuous and ruthless struggle between them is the main driving force of social life. He is one of the developers of the theory that violence was a key factor in the emergence of the state and power. In his opinion, initially a particularly important role in the process of their emergence was played by the struggle between different hordes, divided by racial and ethnic features. With the emergence of the state, the struggle between hordes gave way to the struggle between social classes, classes, and also between states.
His main works are the "Race Struggle" (1883), Sociology & Politics (1895), "Fundamentals of Sociology (1899), Sociological essays (1899). In the work "The Race Struggle". Gumplovich introduced the concept of "ethnocentrism", later developed by W. Sumner and included in the conceptual apparatus of sociology.
The sociology of religion, founded by M. Weber, E. Durkheim, G. Simmel, E. Treelch, began to be formed, beginning in the middle of the 19th century, at the intersection of sociology, religion and philosophy. All of them are closely connected with the development of social philosophy, the philosophy of history, history, ethnology, culture-anthropology. For example, in the works of M. Weber on this subject, especially in the work "Protestantism and the spirit of capitalism", it is very difficult to determine where sociology ends and philosophy begins or vice versa.
M. Weber, who is considered one of the founding fathers of theoretical sociology, owns works that can equally be classed as political philosophy, sociology, political science, political economy, and religious studies. These include "Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism", "Economic ethics of world religions", "Economy and society", "Sociology of religion", "Critical research in the field of the logic of cultural sciences", "On some categories of understanding sociology "," Basic sociological concepts "," Politics as a vocation and profession. "
According to M. Weber, the social philosophy, which he identified with theoretical sociology, is called upon to study first and foremost the behavior and activities of people. Society is understood by him as an arena of interaction of personalities and social groups on the basis of harmonizing their interests, language, religion, morality. It was in this vein that he created his theory of social action. According to Weber, social philosophy is called upon to explore the relationships of all spheres of human activity - economic, legal, moral, religious.
The sociologist must understand not only the content, but also the motives of the actions of people based on certain spiritual values. Therefore, it is important to understand the essence of the spiritual world of the subjects of social action. Accordingly, in Weber, sociology is also called understanding. Its concept is built on the distinction between the concepts explanation (Erklaren) and Understanding (Verstehen). The natural sciences Weber considers mainly explaining, the science of culture - mostly understanding. The main sociological work of Weber's "Economics and Society"; has the subtitle "Basics of an understanding sociology". The main place in it is given to comprehension, understanding of subjective motives, attitudes, intentions, goals of individuals acting in society.
Exploring the spiritual world of the subjects of social action, Weber could not bypass the question of values. Recognizing their presence in the researcher's constructions, he had his own understanding of values. Unlike H. Rickert and other neo-Kantians who interpreted them as supra-historical and eternal phenomena, Weber regarded value as the "installation of a particular historical epoch", i.e. as a historical phenomenon, having an earthly, socio-historical nature.
Especially important in Weber's social philosophy is the concept of ideal types. By ideal type, he meant an abstract ideal model of society that most adequately corresponds to the interests of man. This is a thinking construct created by the researcher and does not reflect the real state of things. "Real behavior," he wrote, "is extremely rare ... and only approximately corresponds to the construction of the ideal type." It is because of the extreme generalization of the real phenomenon that such a construction allows us to comprehend its social meaning, which is meaningful to people.
The ideal types can be moral, political, religious and other values, as well as the resulting behavior of people and behavior, rules and norms of behavior, traditions. In this capacity, ideal types act as specific guidelines and criteria on the basis of which it is possible to make necessary changes in the spiritual, political and social life of people. In this respect, they are socially significant phenomena, since they contribute to making sense in the mindset and behavior of people.
As an example of an ideal type, the notion homo economicus - "economic man" can be cited. In reality there is no "economic man" as such, a sociological or political person other than a human being, but economic disciplines or sociology - for the purposes of analysis - create the appropriate "ideal type".
In his works on the sociology of religion, M. Weber was primarily interested in the question: what explains the fact that certain manifestations of the spirit and culture, such as rationality, modernization, legitimacy, first made their way in the West? The answer to it is given in the famous work "Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism".
With these considerations in mind, one can agree with K. Jaspers, who said about the death of an outstanding scientist in 1920: "Many of us considered Max Weber a philosopher. The greatness of this person does not allow him to claim a separate profession or a separate science. "
These arguments serve as convincing evidence that Weber acted in one person as a political scientist, political philosopher and sociological theorist.
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