Г. Haken. Secrets of nature. Synergetics: the doctrine of interaction
HAKEN German (born 1927) is a German theoretical physicist, the founder of synergetics. After receiving the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Natural Sciences, he studied physics and mathematics at the universities of Halle (194G-1948) and Erlangen (1948-1950). Since 1960 he is a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Stuttgart. Until November 1997, he was director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Synergetics at the University of Stuttgart. Since December 1997 - Honorary Professor and Head of the Center for Synergetics at this Institute; conducts research at the Center for the Study of Complex Systems at the University of Florida, Boca Raton, USA. He is the publisher of the Springer series of books on synergetics, within the framework of which 69 volumes have already been published.
The term "synergetics", which denotes the new direction of interdisciplinary research in science, was first introduced by Haken in his lectures at the University of Stuttgart in 1969. In his ideological orientations, Haken is close
to Aristotle. I am convinced of the existence of general laws that are valid not only for the fundamental components of matter, but also for the behavior of complex systems of any nature.
CHAPTER 1. Introduction and Overview
Why this book may seem interesting to you. Our world consists of many diverse things: some of them are created by man - houses, cars, tools, paintings, etc. - but the rest are created by Nature. For a scientist, this world of things is the world of structures ordered in accordance with strict laws. If we send telescopes to immeasurable outer space, we will see spiraling nebulae, similar to those depicted in the photograph. Here, spiral arms are clearly distinguishable, thanks to which the nebula got its name. In these gas nebulae new suns are born - an unimaginable number of new bright suns. Our Sun and our Earth also belong to such a nebula - the Milky Way, well visible in the sky on clear nights. Our Sun is only one of a hundred billion suns entering the Milky Way.
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The Earth, along with other planets, orbits the Sun around the Sun, obeying the strict laws of celestial mechanics. Orderly structures can be found not only in space. Look around, and your eyes will open an endless variety of such structures: let's take as an example the noble form of the most ordinary snowflake. The living nature again and again amazes us with its abundance, and the forms in which it is expressed can sometimes be completely improbable. & lt; ... & gt;
However, in amazement we are attacked not only by fixed structures similar to the above. No less enthusiasm can cause a dance full of grace, or the beauty of horse racing. The life of human society also demonstrates a considerable variety of structures: both in the political (for example, in various forms of state structure) and in the purely spiritual sphere of human activity, structuring is revealed - in language, in music and, finally, in science. Thus, the world around us abounds in all sorts of structures: from those we meet in nature to those that are inherent in an intelligent life; we are so used to structures that we often do not realize how miraculous is their very existence.
People of past centuries perceived all this as a manifestation of the divine will and confirmation of this - the history of the creation of our world, set out in the Old Testament. Science, too, for a long time was occupied only with questions of structure - but not appearance! - structures existing around us.
An interest in the way in which all these structural educations could have arisen emerged and matured only in modern times. If science wants to avoid the need to resort to supernatural forces and acts of creation each time to explain the essence of things, it first of all should explain the nature of spontaneous generation and development of structures-in other words, the essence of self-organization processes.
The desire to create a single picture of the world. If we, realizing the infinite variety of surrounding structures, decide to find out how they originated, we will face an impossible, at first glance, task. Already attempts to somehow classify the discovered structures have demanded (and continue to demand) the enormous expenditure of time and effort of many generations of researchers - is it possible to go this way to the end? and is it worth it? Indeed, if the structure of each separate structure is subordinated to a special one peculiar to it, the laws, there would be nothing to think about describing all this in one book - it would take a whole library of unimaginable dimensions.
Here comes the idea on the scene, which is, in fact, the driving force of any spider. Science is not just about collecting actual material, but also striving to create a holistic picture of the world, an integral worldview. This aspiration is especially evident in the natural sciences - for example, in physics, chemistry or biology - but no less well known are the attempts made by philosophers. We are all well aware of the search for physics by the fundamental laws of the universe. The mechanics of Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and his law of universal gravitation give us the opportunity to describe the motion of planets around the Sun - a movement for which there was no single explanation in antiquity. Thanks to James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), we learned that light is nothing more than electromagnetic oscillations, like radio waves. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) managed to relate gravity, space and time. Khimik Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) first ordered the variety of substances existing in nature, creating a periodic system of chemical elements. In modern atomic physics, Mendeleyev's periodic system can be considered the embodiment of the basic law of the structure of atoms. In biology, according to the laws discovered by Mendel, there is a transfer from generation to generation of hereditary traits when crossing, for example, plants with different colors of flowers. Already in our time, the chemical mechanisms of such a transfer, which is due to giant molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), have been discovered.
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As these examples show (and their number could be multiplied many times), humanity is constantly looking for and finding ever new laws that are uniform for all processes occurring in nature.
While phenomena of the most varied property by the efforts of scientists are finally brought together as manifestations of certain laws of nature, the researchers discover completely new facts concerning even more complex phenomena, and at times science is close to a complete burial due to the avalanche of information extracted by scientists. Hence - the endless "race", the struggle between the flow of new facts and the desire of scientists to systematize these facts, understand and correlate with the action of the universal laws of the universe.
Analysis and synthesis. What, in fact, are the opportunities for studying the structures and processes occurring in them we have? The favorite and, perhaps, the most commonly used method is the decomposition of the object under study into smaller and smaller components. So the physicist discovers that the crystal & lt; ... & gt; consists of atoms, the atoms, in turn, are divided into smaller elements - protons and electrons. One of the most important areas of modern physical research is connected with the study of "elementary" particles (quarks and gluons), which, quite possibly, are still not the last, "the most elementary" particles of matter. The biologist prepares tissue cells, reaching the constituent elements: cell membranes and nuclei, and then on to biomolecules. A list of this kind of "expansions" can be supplemented by examples from other branches of science ... and the science itself, too, is already "decomposed" to mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc. - up to sociology and psychology.
Do the biological structures contradict the fundamental laws of nature? Physics has every right to be considered the basis of natural science, because the subject of its study is matter, and since the entire surrounding world is material, it is subject to laws discovered by physicists. However, this idea of physics did not always exist - at least among biologists. Devotees of vitalism put forward their point of view: they believed that all living beings are inherent in their inherently very special life force. Today, after chemical processes have been described in terms of physical theories (concerning the nature of chemical bonds and the structure of the atom), there are hardly any people who doubt that the same operation can be done with biological processes. We emphasize - in principle, since behind this, at first glance, a simple phrase hides, as we will see later, a whole complex of very difficult problems.
Here we are faced with a completely remarkable pattern, which is a red thread in everything related to the phenomenon of self-organization.
Individual elements of systems are organized, as if controlled by an invisible hand, on the other hand, the systems interacting with each other continuously create this invisible hand. We call such organizing an invisible hand organizer & quot ;. However, it seems, we again fell into a vicious circle? Our "organizer", in fact, is the result of the interaction of individual elements of the system, but he also directs the behavior of these individual elements. Reminds of an ancient puzzle: what was before - a chicken or an egg? (They do not even remember the cock for some reason.)
In the language of synergetics, the event is described as follows: the order parameter subordinates the elements of the system. The order parameter is similar to the puppet master who manages the puppets: he makes them dance, but they, in turn, have power over him and are able to control him. In the future, we will see that the principle of subordination plays a central role in synergetics. However, even now I would like to emphasize that the term principle of subordination ns carries in itself absolutely no emotional load, and it should be perceived quite neutrally. This principle expresses only a certain type of interconnection and has nothing to do with subordination or enslavement in the ethical sense. So, for example, you can say that representatives of some people are subject to their national language.
Exploring various phenomena first in physics, then in chemistry, and finally in biology from the standpoint of assuming the existence of the principle of subordination and the order parameter, I again and again encountered the following regularity: the processes of the formation of structures always proceed in a certain direction, however it is not at all what thermodynamics predicts, and certainly not in the direction of an increase in the "disorder".
On the contrary: the elements of the system, previously unorganized, come to a state of a certain order, and this order subordinates their behavior to them.
In the future we will see that the inevitability with which order emerges from chaos does not at all depend on the material substratum that has become a scene for the observed process. In this sense, the laser behaves quite the same as the cloud formation or group of cells. Obviously, we are dealing here with the manifestation of the same phenomenon. There is every reason to assume that this same pattern is also valid in the non-material sphere.
When acquaintance with synergetics - as in the case of any other science - it seems reasonable to start by considering the simplest processes, and only then move on to more complex ones. So we start with examples from physics and chemistry, and then turn to economics, sociology and methodology. There is nothing new in the idea of transferring the methods and experience obtained from simple examples to the field of more complex phenomena. So, for example, in sociology and economics, models are being developed that are similar to models in physics and widely use the physical concept of "entropy," which is a measure for chaos.
The achievements of modern physics served as the basis for new thinking first in physics itself, and then in other sciences. For example, today the scientific view on the structure of society, which was formerly regarded as a system in static equilibrium, has completely changed. Structures arise, disintegrate, compete with each other or cooperate with each other, uniting and creating new, larger structures. We are now at a turning point in history: in human thinking, there is a turn from statics to dynamics.
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