General scientific research methodsAs noted above, general scientific methods of research are immediate manifestations of dialectic, or dialectics of cognition. They are called general scientific, since they are used in the cognition of all phenomena of reality and, consequently, in all sciences.
These methods were formed during the centuries of cognitive activity of people and are improved in the course of its development. It is necessary to master them in order to apply them in the study of social reality, including socio-economic and political processes taking place in society.
General scientific methods, being methods of cognition of reality, are simultaneously methods of thinking researchers; on the other hand, the methods of thinking of researchers serve as methods for their cognitive activity.
Let's consider the basic general scientific methods of research.
Statement of the problem and its solution on the basis of scientific facts
The direction and content of her research largely depends on the setting of this or that scientific problem. It is essentially a cognitive task, conditioned by the corresponding needs of social life-economic, political, spiritual, etc., including the needs of the cognitive activity of people themselves. The prerequisites for solving this problem are knowledge, social experience, means and methods of research. In a scientific study, first of all, problems are considered that are necessary and can be solved at this time.The scientific formulation and solution of any problem must be based on scientifically established facts. For the fundamental role of the facts in the scientific knowledge of society, for example, the great United States physiologist IP Pavlov and the famous French sociologist E. Durkheim , which initiated the teaching about social facts.
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We can say that objective facts are all existing phenomena of reality. Scientific facts are a reliable knowledge of these existing phenomena, their objective properties. Scientific facts are the empirical basis of scientific research, including economic, political, and other.
Research of the problem usually begins with the collection and accumulation of scientific facts. The number of such facts should be sufficient to solve the problem, first of all - to identify the objective nature and content of the phenomenon under investigation, as well as the patterns of its development and significance in the life of society.
Scientific facts are obtained with the help of observations for some economic, political or other phenomena, as well as using various kinds of experiments. It is necessary to base on scientific facts at all stages research - from formulating the problem to processing the results of the study and drawing conclusions.Facts are selected and analyzed depending on the purposes and content of the scientific research, then classified and brought into a specific system in which their meaning and value are clearly revealed to solve that or another problem.
Analysis and synthesis
When researching the processes of social life, scientists resort to such methods of cognition as analysis and synthesis.
First of all, they subject these processes to scientific analysis, i.e. the mental division of them into elements in order to study each of them. But any of these elements functions only in interrelation and interaction with other elements. Therefore, the analysis of the element assumes simultaneously understanding of its interrelations and interactions, which is the content of the synthesis.
Thus, analysis and synthesis are two interrelated aspects of people's thinking activity and, accordingly, two interrelated methods of cognition of reality: "... when we perform an analytical process, we synthesize, and synthesis includes both the moment and the analysis. .. Even the most elementary analysis is impossible without synthesis, without the connection of the analyzed moments into something unified ". Synthesis of includes a selection in a single individual of its elements
In analyzing the socio-economic or political process, specific features of its elements and their role in its functioning and development are comprehended. In the course of scientific synthesis, there is a holistic view of this process, its content, i.e. the interaction of its sides (elements), as well as its essence and the laws of its development.
In the process of analytical and synthesizing activity of thinking, a transition is made from the initial speculative (and therefore superficial) judgments about a given economic or political process to more or less profound and holistic ideas about it. The appearance of new knowledge about the process under investigation indicates the creative (heuristic) nature of analysis and synthesis.
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We need to be able to analyze the content and social orientation of the economic, political and other processes taking place in society in order to compose a holistic (synthetic) representation about them and to correctly assess their role and significance at a given time and place.< center>
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