GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY, I. Kant - Philosophy

GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY

The beginning of Enlightenment in German philosophy is closely related to the famous Christian Wolff (1679-1754), who systematized and popularized the teachings of G. Leibniz. Many philosophers, not only German, but also United States, for example MV Lomonosov, studied with Wolf, who for the first time in Germany developed a system that embraced the main areas of philosophical culture.

By this time the outstanding work of Adam Smith (1723-1790) was created "Study of the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" (1776). Philosophy developed in the intellectual atmosphere of progressive scientific and artistic thought. An important role was played by the achievements of natural science and social sciences. Physicists and chemists began to develop, the study of organic nature (work and discoveries of L. Galvani, A. Volta, H. K. Oersted, G. Davy, M. Lomonosov, G. Priestley, A. L. Lavoisier in the field physics and chemistry, works by JB Lamarck, A. Haller, R. Brown and others in the field of studying organic nature). Discoveries in the field of mathematics, which made it possible to understand the processes in their exact quantitative expression, the teachings of JB Lamarck, in fact the predecessor of Charles Darwin, about the conditioning of the organism's development by the environment, astronomical, geological, embryological theories, and the theories of the development of human society - all this with all the sharpness and inevitability put forward the idea of ​​development as a theory and method of cognition of reality.

The prominent role in the development of German philosophical culture was played by G. E. Lessing (1729-1781), IG Herder (1744-1803), German philosophizing romantics - first of all F. Schlegel (1772-1829), theologian and philosopher F. Schleiermacher (1768-1834), major thinkers Wilhelm (1767-1835) and Alexander (1769-1859) Humboldt. The greatest upsurge of German humanistic culture was the creations of such giants of thought and artistic and aesthetic culture as Johann Goethe and Friedrich Schiller.

I. Kant

One of the greatest minds of mankind, the founder of German classical philosophy is Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) - a truly titanic figure. It was with him that the dawn of the philosophy of the New Age began. Not only in philosophy, and in concrete science, Kant was a deep, penetrating thinker. His hypothesis of the origin of the solar system from a gigantic gas nebula is still one of the fundamental scientific ideas of astronomy. In addition, he put forward the idea of ​​distribution of animals in the order of their possible origin, as well as the idea of ​​the natural origin of human races.

Philosophical views of Kant significantly changed in proportion to its spiritual development. If before the early 80's. XVIII century. He was mainly interested in natural-scientific questions, then his spirit is plunged into the so-called metaphysical, ie, philosophical, the problems of being, of cognition, of man, of morality, of the state and law, of aesthetics; of the whole system of philosophy.

Man, ethics and law - that's the alpha and omega of the whole philosophical doctrine of the great Thinker.

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