German classical philosophy, Postclassical philosophy...

German classical philosophy

The sources of German classical philosophy, which she synthesized and surpassed, making this synthesis the basis for her world-building, were the philosophy of the New Age, the philosophy of the Enlightenment and Romanticism. German classical philosophy has changed the emphasis from opposing a person to nature, a rational unreasonable on the division of the universal category of being into genuine and unreal. In this category, she synthesized the rationalism and empiricism of the New Time, the rational and unreasonable Enlightenment, intuition and rationality of romanticism under a single aegis of the mind. Reality is the embodied mind. But in addition to reality, there are also inadequate forms of reason that are not embodied in it. Here, and there is a boundary between genuine and non-authentic being. Relying on the mind as the embodiment of rational being, the classics built their self-sufficient, consistent systems.

An important new feature of German classical philosophy was the derivation on the basis of the unity of Being principles of its development. It means not only and not only Hegel's dialectic, but first of all development itself.

Being addressed to society, to nature and to man, it embodied for the first time the realized synthetic the principle of historicism , which united the whole history of mankind into a single process, laying the foundations of a new theory and methodology of knowledge.

Another typical feature of the German philosophical classics is the realization of the fact that a person lives not only in the natural world, but also in the world of culture. From here, close attention to a person, society and history. The main object of knowledge is man, for, knowing any phenomenon of reality, he ultimately does it for himself, as his ultimate goal. Proceeding from this, the focus of philosophizing is human world , which is far from being limited to the natural world.

In singling out these three, in our opinion basic, achievements of German classical philosophy, we once again draw the attention of the reader to the difficulties of synthesizing this phenomenon of world philosophy and to the fact that the philosophical system of each of the German classics is far from being limited to these three aspects. Therefore, each of these systems deserves a separate careful study and own evaluation.

Postclassical philosophy of the 19th century

Many philosophers unite this stage of philosophy with modern. Indeed, a number of philosophical

schools and directions, laid in the XIX century, continued to develop and in the XX century. Some directions were anticipated in post-classical philosophy and developed only in our day. Thus, most experts consider the predecessor of existentialism S. Kierkegaard, but existentialism as a major trend of philosophical thought was formed only in the 50's. XX century.

We, however, consider it possible to separate these two philosophical epochs partly because each of them had its own philosophical schools, in part because the directions that passed in the 20th century sometimes transformed beyond recognition into modern adepts. Nevertheless, the marked continuity must be kept in mind constantly, studying the philosophical trends of the last two centuries. Moreover, it must be sought, which will create the completeness of ideas about the philosophical school being studied. However, continuity is a general law of history, including the history of philosophy, and its accounting is useful in the process of any cognition.

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