One of the aspects of interaction between culture and nature are global problems - a set of vital problems affecting humanity as a whole and insoluble within the framework of individual states and even geographic regions.
Global problems came to the fore in the XX century. as a result of a significant increase in the population and a sharp intensification of the production process in a postindustrial society.
A significant role in the gradual growth of global problems was played by science, which provided unprecedented growth in industrial and agricultural production, an increase in the average duration of human life, etc.
The scientific research of global problems should be complex in nature, as they affect not only many social disciplines, from economic science to social philosophy, but also natural sciences, including biology, physics, chemistry, etc.
Science is, however, not the only and even the main means of finding solutions to even the most acute global problems. These problems are social in nature, they require concerted action by most of the existing states.
Among the global problems are:
• reduction of rapid population growth ("demographic explosion");
• prevention of thermonuclear war;
• elimination of catastrophic pollution of the environment, primarily the atmosphere and the oceans;
• the formation of a single humanity;
• preservation of human nature;
• Ensuring further economic development with necessary natural resources, especially non-renewable (oil, gas, coal, etc.);
• bridging the gap in living standards between developed and developing countries;
• elimination of hunger, poverty, illiteracy;
• fight against international terrorism, etc.
The circle of global problems is not outlined sharply, their peculiarity is that they can not be solved in isolation from each other and the very existence of humanity largely depends on their solution.Among the numerous global problems generated by the technogenic civilization, we can single out the following three as the most important: the problem of survival in the context of the continuous improvement of weapons of mass destruction; the growing global environmental crisis; the problem of preserving the human person, the human being as a biosocial structure. The fact that the very nature of man posed in the modern era is in danger, undoubtedly. And the danger of a man's loss of his essence is so great that it may well be ranked among global problems.
Most of the global problems are caused by the tremendously increased human impact on the world around him, his transforming nature by economic activity, which has become comparable in scale to geological and other planetary natural processes.
According to pessimistic forecasts, global problems can not be resolved at all and in the near future will lead humanity to an ecological catastrophe (R. Heilbroner). The optimistic forecast assumes that the solution of global problems will turn out to be a natural consequence of scientific and technological progress (G. Cap) or the result of the elimination of social antagonisms and the construction of a perfect society (Marxism-Leninism). The intermediate position is the demand for a slowdown or even zero growth in the economy and the world's population (D. Meadows and others).
The problem of the formation of a single humanity
Let's consider in more detail two of the listed global problems - the problem of the formation of a single mankind and the problem of preserving the nature of man.
The expression "world history", often used by historians, has two very different meanings:
1) human history is part of the most general cosmic history, including both the history of nature (in particular, living nature) and the history of mankind, the latter being from the outset unified and integral and represents an organic, perhaps even necessary, part space history;
2) world history is the history of becoming humanity, with the passage of time of living and acting more and more as a single whole, the history of all peoples and societies entering into it and ever more closely interacting with each other.
The first interpretation of world history definitely gravitates the so-called closed (or collectivist) society. The very idea of a single humanity and its unified history, organically included in the world course of events, is a medieval idea.
The idea of a single holistic history, in which everything has its place, developed by Hegel and then by Marx. Every person, every epoch, every people was considered by them as links of a single chain. They did not exist for themselves, their purpose was to pave the way. At the same time, both Hegel and Marx, constructing a single history, discarded entire nations, epochs and cultures as irrelevant for history, which are nothing more than an accident or incidental phenomena. Like Christian history, the unified histories of Hegel and Marx were at a certain point, reaching their peak, to end, moving to another temporal dimension and ceasing to be stories in the proper sense of the word.
The idea of world history as a gradual, step by step paving the way for the unity of mankind began to take shape only in the New Times and was caused primarily by the development of capitalism. The sharp increase in the number of people, the sharp increase in the interrelations between them, the growing trade and the economic dependence of the regions on each other contributed to the formation of this idea. The idea of the inclusion of human history as an organic part of the world cosmic order is for this alien view.
Currently, there are more than two hundred states in the world at very different levels of social and economic development. Integration processes are actively going on, quite a large number of states are joining economic and political alliances. It can be assumed that in the distant future, the integration of states and the growing convergence of their interests will lead to the fact that they will unite into a kind of "super-community" embracing all of humanity and guided from a single center. The borders between states will disappear, foreign policy, armies, wars, etc. will become unnecessary. It will be possible to say that there arose a single humanity in the truest sense of the word.
All this is a very remote perspective, besides, one must take into account that there are no historical laws that would cause individual societies to form groups and eventually force them to create "super-society". Everything depends on the people themselves, on their understanding of their interests and the benefits of integration, on the pressure of some countries on others, on the continuing growth of the population, on economic, cultural and other connections between different societies, etc.
But if we assume that one of the main and long-term trends of modern historical development is the formation of a single humanity, we can now try to imagine what forms this process could take.
Two basic models of the creation of a single humanity are possible: closed (collectivistic) and open (individualistic). The first presupposes a global goal for all mankind or for a sufficiently powerful part of it, the use of force to regulate all diverse societies and bring them to a common denominator on the basis of such a goal, the introduction of a single ideology, the creation of a world-led structure led by the leader and m. The second model provides for a voluntary, mutually beneficial association of dissimilar societies into a kind of federation based on the principles of democracy and providing its members with broad autonomy.
The first model was tried in the XX century. communism and National Socialism, but they managed to do relatively little in the way of the forcible unification of mankind. Communism assumed that this process would begin with proletarian revolutions in the most developed countries of the West. Then the proletarians of different countries, having united, will overthrow capitalism in other countries and will establish in the whole world socialism, which is the threshold of communism. The level of economic development of different countries is gradually leveled, and they will all join the communism approximately at the same time. Details of what will be the world communist society, what will be, in particular, the world communist government, were not discussed in the same way as the sources of those riches that supposedly would flow onto a single man by a continuous stream were not discussed. The National Socialist plan for the unification of mankind assumes that first National Socialist Germany will subjugate Europe, and then by the united forces of Europe will conquer the whole world and thus Europeanize it. Negatively valuable peoples, capable only of decomposing and destroying culture, will be destroyed; peoples that have zero racial value will be turned into slaves; racially fully-fledged peoples will constitute the elite that governs humanity.
The question of an open model of a single humanity is more complex.
One of the first about it is quite detailed Jaspers spoke. "The political unity of the planet," he wrote, "is only a matter of time. The path of development is, apparently, from national states through major continental spheres of influence to the world empire or to the world order. This path is laid, on the one hand, by the will in the history of the will to power and domination, whose more or less conscious goal is to create the world empire as large as possible under the given conditions; on the other - the desire for peace, to a world order where people's lives are free from fear. "
Create world empire - this is, in effect, a collectivist way of uniting mankind; world order - an individualistic path to this goal.
The world empire unites mankind through a power that subordinates everyone from one center. Power is based on violence, which forms the leveled masses. Total planning is supported by brutal terror. By means of propaganda a single worldview is being introduced. Censorship and leadership of spiritual activity subordinate the latter to a single, but constantly modifiable plan.
The world order is a unity without a single authority, except when it is approved by agreement and on the basis of a common solution. The established norms of relations between societies and individuals can only be changed by legislative means on the basis of new regulations. The parties jointly obey this procedure and the decisions of the majority, guarantee everyone the common rights that protect, in particular, the minority existing at every moment. The enslavement of all from a single center is opposed by the device accepted by all, behind which there is a refusal of every member of the world community from absolute sovereignty. The path to world order leads through self-limitation of those who have power, and this self-restriction is a condition for freedom of all. Establishing a world order would mean eliminating the former concept of the state in the name of people's happiness. The result of this would not be a world state (which would inevitably become a world empire), but an organization of states permanently restoring itself through discussion and decision making, in the limited spheres enjoying self-government, in other words, the result would be global federalism.Summarizing this brief discussion of the trends in the formation of a single mankind, one must emphasize once again that this is a distant future, so that specific forms of implementing this trend remain very vague.
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