Group psychology as a theoretical concept of intra-cultural mechanisms.
The most prominent representatives of the socio-psychological direction in the study of cultures in France - G. Lebon and G. Tard.
French psychologist, sociologist and anthropologist Gustav Lebon (1841 -1931) graduated from the University of Paris. Doctor of Medicine, the author of a number of works on physics and chemistry. He was a volunteer in the period of the Co-PUnited States War of 1870-1871. Traveled to Europe, North Africa and Asia, where he wrote more than half of his works, mainly on anthropology and archeology. I was carried away by social psychology. In the works "Psychological laws of the evolution of peoples" (1894) and "The Psychology of the Crowd" (1895) analyzed the relationship of the masses of the people, the crowd and leaders, including at the level of feelings, ideas.
The problems of mental contamination and suggestion were first posed in the works of G. Lebon, the question of managing people in different cultures was formulated.
Lebon developed the idea of racial determinism in the development of civilization, distinguishing four groups of races: primitive (there is not the slightest trace of culture), the lowest (Negroes, capable of embryonic civilization), middle (Chinese, Japanese, Semitic peoples, created high types of civilizations) , the highest (only Indo-European peoples). According to the Tardus, only the higher races "we owe the high level that civilization has now reached." & lt; ... & gt; Between the four large groups it is impossible to have any merger: the mental abyss separating them is obvious " .
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The leading factor in the social evolution of G. Lebon - feelings and beliefs. He singles out the role of the national character , defining him as "the most powerful factor in the life of peoples."
Identifying the mass with the crowd, Lebon foreshadowed the offensive of the "crowd era" and the associated decline in civilization. Characterizing the properties of the crowd, he notes that there are ideas and feelings that turn into actions only among the individuals making up the crowd. First, "the individual in the crowd gains due to only the size of the consciousness of an irresistible force", a sense of responsibility "completely disappears in the crowd". The second reason is "contagion"; in the crowd, every action is contagious, and the individual easily "sacrifices his personal interests of interest to the collective" . The third reason is the susceptibility to suggestion; The infection we just talked about is only a consequence of this susceptibility . Lebon distinguishes the properties of the crowd: impulsiveness, irritability, inability to think, lack of reasoning and criticism, exaggerated sensitivity.
The study of the problems of group psychology and interpersonal interaction was continued in the works of G. Tard.
Gabriel Tard (1843 1904) received a law degree in Paris (1866). He began his professional career as a judge of the mountains. Sarli (1869-1894), his first articles are devoted to the problems of criminology. Subsequently, he became head of the criminal statistics department of the Ministry of Justice (since 1894) and professor of the College de France. In 1900 he was elected a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. Publications: Comparative Crime (1886), Philosophy of Punishment (1890), The Laws of Imitation (1890), The Criminal Crowd (1892), Social Logic (1895), Social laws (1898), etc.
Tard interprets sociality as imitation , which is the manifestation of the basic law of everything - universal repetition. Society is ultimately imitation. Tard put at the heart of the study of the individual , rather than groups or organizations. He viewed society as the result of the interaction of individual consciousnesses through the transmission and assimilation of beliefs and desires.
Tard emphasizes that "beliefs, desires and primary sensation are the only psychological elements", and "belief and desire are the only forces and only quantities of the soul" .
Highlighting three types of interactions: mental infection , suggestion , imitation , - G. Tard sought to show how innovation in cultures is transmitted in society individuals. An elementary relation , according to the Tardus, is an ego transmission or attempt to transmit belief or desire.
Imitation (imitative activity) consists in the reproduction, copying of socio-cultural stereotypes. Thanks to him, group and social values and norms are formed, and by their assimilation socialization of individuals takes place. Imitation is the basis of learning, it ensures the transfer of cultural tradition from generation to generation. The basic forms of imitation are customs and fashion.
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Psychological infection - unconscious repetition of actions in a human collective or in a mass of people. It forms the basis of the mechanism by which a mass of people simultaneously possess any psychological states: fear, hatred, love, etc.
Suggestion - the introduction into consciousness of people (consciously or unconsciously) of some rules, norms, regulating social behavior. It promotes the unification of people within a culture for a specific task.Imitation, infection and suggestion, from the point of view of the founders of "group psychology", interact in the real system of social relations and ensure the regulation of these relations in relation to a specific ethno-cultural community.
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