Homeric epic gave an idea of the world order and the destiny of man, themes that will find their continuation and development in philosophy. However, speaking about the prerequisites for the formation of early Greek philosophy, one can not ignore another poet - Hesiod . Years of his life are not exactly known, but it is established that he was born in the VIII century. BC , and died in the VII century. BC .
Unlike Homer's personality, Hesiod's personality is not so mysterious: we know his biography well, and scientists do not doubt that he was the author of two poems known as "Theogony" and "Proceedings and days".
Theogony - a poem about the origin of the world, understood as the origin of the gods (this is how the name of the poem literally translates). It describes in detail how
... as gods, how our land was born,
As the boundless sea was noisy, rivers,
The stars that carry light, and the wide sky above us;
Who from immortal bearers of goods from what originated,
How to share the riches and honors among themselves,
How to master for the first time the abundantly tight Olympus ...
Hesiod. Theogony & quot ;. 108-113 (Translated by V. Veresaev).
The poem consistently presents the appearance of deities, each of which embodies a certain part of the world. In the beginning there was Chaos (chaos), and only after him - "broad-chested Gaia, universal safe haven" and gloomy Tartar , and, between the eternal all gods, the most beautiful, Eros . Gaea "gave birth to herself equal to the widow/Starry Sky, Uranus", "also gave birth (...)/Noisy Sea infertile Pontus. And yotom, having divided/a Lodge with Uranus, the Ocean gave birth to a deep "." In this description, Hesiod, like Homer, fixes the limit , the boundary, the meeting line of Heaven and Earth - a horizon that is visible but unattainable.
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The history of space formation is presented as a dramatic struggle between the old and new generations of gods, in which the latter triumphs and establishes a different order:
After the end of the work of his blessed gods
And in the contest for power and honor defeated the Titans,
The thundering Zeus, the advice of the Earth obeying,
They proposed to be above the gods king and lord.
He gave them all the land he had to whom he relied
Hesiod. Theogony & quot ;. 881-885 (Translated by V. Veresaev).
Zeus, as "king and lord of the gods," took to himself the wife of Mstis-Wisdom, since "she most of all knows between all the people and the gods", however, she was sent to her womb by Cronion,/...) so that he would tell him that evil and that good " . In the next marriage Zeus's wife became Themis and gave birth to the goddesses of Eunomius, Dick and Irene. Thus, the world order established by Zeus presupposes a law - themis , presented by Themis, observance of laws - Eunomia , order, or justice, - dike and world - Eirene.
The demand for the preservation of justice as the foundation of the world order extends to all the actions of man, on his being-in-the-world. This topic becomes key in "Trudy i dniakh" - the second famous poem by Hesiod. If Theogony is a history of cosmic creation, then "Proceedings and days" - the history of mankind. In this work we meet a story about five centuries, or five generations of people:
Created primarily by the generation of people of gold
Ever-living gods, owners of Olympic dwellings & lt; ... & gt;
There lived those people, like the gods, with a calm and clear soul,
Woe is not knowing, not knowing the labors. And sad old age
They did not dare approach them. Always equally strong
There were their hands and feet. In the feasts they spent their lives.
A died, as if embraced by a dream. Disadvantage
There was nothing in them known <...>
After that generation is different, it's much worse,
Of the silver, the great gods of Olympus created.
It was not similar to the gold nor the guise, nor the thought of <...>
We lived only a short time, doomed ourselves to the misfortunes
Own stupidity: because of the pride of the wild can not
They were abstaining & lt; ... & gt;
The third parent of Kronid is the generation of people who speak,
Copper has created & lt; ... & gt;
With spears. Were those people powerful and terrible. Love
The terrible case of Areya, forcible & lt; ... & gt;
After the earth is a generation and it's covered,
Still another generation, the fourth, created Cronion (...)
Glorious heroes are a divine race. People call them
The demigods: they lived on the earth before us ...
Hesiod. Proceedings & days & quot ;. 109-160 (Translated by V. Veresaev).
The most terrible picture is a description of the last, fifth, generation, during which Hesiod himself lives:
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The earth is now inhabited by iron people. Will not be
They have a respite neither at night, nor during the day from labor and from grief,
And from the misfortunes & lt; ... & gt;
Children - with fathers, with children - their fathers will not be able to agree.
Foreign comrade will become alien, guest - master.
There will be no more love brothers, as it used to be.
Old parents will soon be completely read <& p; ...
The truth will be replaced by a fist. Cities will be looted.
And well, will excite in no respect either the oath,
Neither fair nor kind. Quickly a fugitive and a villain
It will be honored to be rewarded. Where there is power, there will be both the right & lt; ... & gt;
The eternal gods will then ascend, flying off from mortals,
Conscience and Shame. Only one cruel calamity
People will stay in life. There will be no deliverance from evil ...
Hesiod. Proceedings & days & quot ;. 176-201 (Translated by V. Veresaev).
Thus, the poems of Hesiod: 1) give an idea of the structure of the cosmos ( Theogony ); 2) raise issues related to the circle of ethical issues ("Proceedings and Days"), in particular, problems related to the understanding of justice; 3) call to educate in themselves an understanding of justice, which will support the harmony of the cosmos, and hence, the order in their own lives; 4) emphasize that the education of a person in the soul of an understanding of justice and measures is work. The poet says:
Evil do as much as you like - quite a simple matter.
The path is not hard to evil, it lives not far away.
But virtue from us was separated by immortal gods
A painful sweat: steep, high and long to her road,
And difficult in the beginning. But if you reach the top,
Easy and straight will become the road, hard before ...
Hesiod. Proceedings & days & quot ;. 287-292 (Translated by V. Veresaev).
All these important topics of the Greek epic will attract the interest of later thinkers and find their place in classical texts of ancient philosophy, especially in Plato.
It is generally accepted that Homer is the educator of Hellas and Greeks; The study of Homeric works was the basis of education in Byzantium. Few antiquated rhetorician, historian or philosopher has ignored Homer. In a word, the name of Homer and the works that were associated with this name, represented an indisputable authority.
Eloquent evidence of this is a very characteristic interpolation (insertion) in the Iliad text, namely the so-called "ship catalog" (Canto II), which lists the peoples and leaders who went on a campaign against Troy - a huge army, gathered almost from all over Hellas. However, apparently, in this catalog was not mentioned the Athenian contingent, with which Athens VI. BC, experienced a political upsurge, could not agree. This omission was eliminated by adding the ships catalog & quot ;. As a result, we learn that
The powerful Ajax Telamonides are the twelve Salamis ships
Withdrew and with these became where the Athenian phalanx stood.
Homer. Iliad & quot ;. II, 557-558 (Translated by NI Gnedich).
It is the second of two quoted lines that is considered to be interpolation. The role of the initiators of this interpolation is shared by the Athenian politician and poet Solon (circa 640 circa 559 BC) and archon Pisistratus (602 -527 BC).
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