History, Philosophy and Methodology of Pedagogy, Philosophy...

History, philosophy and methodology of pedagogy

Philosophy and Methodology of Didactics

The main goal of this chapter is to ensure that the reader understands the conceptual structure of pedagogy. As a result of her study, the student must:

know

• the subject and specificity of pedagogy;

• the principle of ensuring maximum learning outcomes for students by teachers;

• methods and approaches of pedagogy;

• features of pedagogical discourse;

be able to

• Define the pedagogical specifics of the concepts, principles, laws and variables used;

• Use the theory of conceptual transitions;

own

• the conceptual apparatus of pedagogy;

• a critical attitude to the existing interpretations of the conceptual structure of pedagogy.

Key terms: the subject and specificity of pedagogy, the principle of ensuring maximum learning outcomes, pedagogical discourse, the principle of scientific actualism, the method of simplifications.

Nature and subject of pedagogy

So, our further goal is to create a consistent course in metapedagogics. In this regard, as before, the metascientific approach is given decisive importance. As the reader is convinced, strict adherence to him is not an easy task. Great importance, as in the case of psychology, will be given to the method of conceptual transitions, according to which any science acts as the deployment of the potential of certain concepts, i.e. principles, laws and variables. Particular attention is also paid to the spectrum of the main modern philosophical trends, in particular analytical philosophy, hermeneutics and poststructuralism. The fact is that one of the interpretations of the philosophy of pedagogy is often absolutized. Its supporters believe that this interpretation is the only true one. It turns out that the idea of ​​pluralism in relation to philosophical trends is alien to them. In the second half of XX century. pluralism has proved its worth. Its ignoring is not allowed.

Pedagogy (from the Greek pais - a child and age in - messages) is usually defined as the science of teaching and educating individuals and groups of people. It should be noted that always, when it comes to the subject of this or that science, certain difficulties are revealed. Striving for a laconic definition, it is extremely difficult to avoid only nominal definitions, the insufficiency of which was considered in the foreword to this edition. Avoiding them, it is advisable to proceed from the list and content of those disciplines that have achieved the recognition of the scientific community. Guided by this rule, let us pay attention to the United States nomenclature of scientific specialties, according to which there is a special branch of science called pedagogical sciences. There are six such sciences. Below is a list of them, indicating the codification adopted in our country (Table 6.1).

Table 6.1. List of pedagogical sciences

13.00.01

General pedagogy, the history of pedagogy and education

13.00.02

Theory and methodology of teaching and upbringing (by areas and levels of preschool and school education)

13.00.03

Correctional pedagogy (surdopedagogy and typhlopedagogics, oligophrenopedagogy and speech therapy)

13.00.04

Theory and methods of physical education, sports training, health and adaptive physical training

13.00.05

Theory, methodology and organization of social cultural activities

13.00.08

Theory and methodology of vocational education

It should be noted that the terminology used in this order is controversial. In particular, it is doubtful to accompany the history of pedagogy with the history of education. Education is a theory in action. It can not exist separately from pedagogy. In conceptual terms (namely, it constitutes the essence of science) education is reduced to pedagogy.

It is doubtful also the opposition of theory and methodology. The methodology as the teaching of methods is part of pedagogy. It is wrong to consider that this or that pedagogical science includes, along with theory, a methodology as well. Any science is a theory, nothing more.

It is also very significant that all the headings except the first can be easily combined under the name "Pedagogy (by areas and levels of education)". After the clarifications made it is obvious that pedagogy includes general pedagogy, the history of pedagogy and pedagogy in the areas and levels of cognition. And the first two disciplines remain purely nominal, if they are not "closed" on pedagogy by areas and levels of knowledge. It is these pedagogical sciences that make up the foundation, the essence of pedagogy. Now we can make some judgments about the number of pedagogical sciences.

First of all, it is necessary to take into account the presence of two dozen branches of science. Each of them contains some groups of individual sciences. By our calculations, there are only about 500 of them. Of course, all these sciences are taught people. It is equally obvious that it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of various social groups, including preschool children, schoolchildren, students, undergraduates, people with certain shortcomings or, on the contrary, possessing outstanding abilities. Given many levels of education, we can state that the above-mentioned value should be multiplied by at least 10. Pedagogy is manifold.

Pedagogy is a branch of science. As such, it consists of groups of sciences. And every pedagogical science, for example, teaching physics in the eighth class, consists of a whole series of theories. Naturally, these theories have many features. If they are not taken into account, then we can state that pedagogy acts as a set of sciences about teaching and education. We gave a rather traditional definition of pedagogy, combining education and upbringing with the union and . But any training is always upbringing. And education is certainly training. Avoiding this confusion in the definition, we propose to regard pedagogy as a branch of science, the subject of which is the maximally effective implementation of raising the conceptual competence of people. It's about conceptual competence, for all sciences, including pedagogy itself, consist of concepts and are their control.

The subject of pedagogy are people, therefore its subject includes their specific relationship. In its consideration, it is necessary to distinguish two sides: those who provide training (teachers), and those who are taught - students (schoolchildren, students, graduate students, etc.). It is interesting that in the case of self-education, the teacher and student are the same person: it seems to split. Thus, the subject of pedagogy can be defined as the relationship between teachers and students aimed at achieving the most effective increase in the scientific competence of trainees, their ability to manage the relevant principles, laws and concepts.

With the shortest definition of the subject of some science, it is advisable to indicate its most relevant concepts - principles. In this regard, the subject, for example, physics, is associated with the principle of least action, and the subject of the economy - with the principle of maximizing the rate of return on advanced capital. Naturally, in accordance with the structure of science and in the case of determining the specifics of pedagogy, its fundamental principle must be indicated. They, in our opinion, is the principle of maximally effective increase of scientific competence of students. Competence is understood as the level of their scientific development, which, as is known, is successfully measured.

The principle of achieving maximum learning outcomes indicates the axiological nature of pedagogy, for it has a pronounced value character. This principle is not concluded in nature, it was invented by people, convinced of its relevance. However, his understanding has been significantly modified several times, which we will discuss below.

It should be emphasized that pedagogy is considered by us as a branch of science, in which non-scientific knowledge should not be included. This can be achieved only with a constant emphasis on scientific criticism. Even the outstanding teachers have interspersed unscientific (false, not true) knowledge. It is necessary to have a clear idea of ​​the scientific nature of pedagogy, and therefore the question of its occurrence is especially urgent.

It is usually associated with the name of J. A. Komensky, the author of the "Great didactics" (1633-1638). Such a widespread view may cause some doubt. Indeed, did pedagogy reach the scientific stage 350 years earlier than psychology ?! Another argument is that pedagogy in those days could not be scientific insofar as the vast majority of disciplines, with the exception of the logic and mathematics for which instruction was conducted, did not reach the scientific stage. This is the actual conclusion.

Pedagogical sciences reach the scientific stage together with those sciences, which are being taught. They do not reach the scientific stage at the same time. The teaching of mathematics was already scientific in Antiquity. Teaching of physics became scientific only after Newton, and biology after Darwin.

Nevertheless, the importance of the work of YA Komensky can not be denied. He was the first to introduce pedagogy, especially its main part (didactics), in a systematic way, having defined in the "Great Didactics" A model that was of great importance for many generations of educators. Only in connection with this it makes sense to count the age of scientific pedagogy from it.

The connection of pedagogy with other sciences is obvious, it is based on their foundation. Like psychology, pedagogy is a mesomechanical discipline, to a certain extent - a reflection on all those sciences that are transformed into pedagogical (educational) disciplines.

Conclusions

1. The subject of pedagogy is the most effective implementation of the increase in the scientific level of students, achieved in the process of their relationship with teachers.

2. Pedagogy is an axiological science. Its main principle is the achievement of the maximum possible degree of scientific competence by the students.

3. The inter-scientific links of pedagogy point to its mesomethaneau nature.

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