And. Kant. The concept of philosophy in general ...
KANT Immanuel (1724-1804) - the famous German philosopher, the largest representative of the "German classical philosophy". He was born and buried in Koenigsberg. He was a professor at the University of Kenigsberg, a foreign honorary member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1794). For his teaching career I. Kant lectured on the widest range of subjects, from mathematics to anthropology. He wrote fundamental philosophical works , brought the scientist's reputation as one of the most authoritative thinkers of the 18th century:
• "Criticism of Pure Reason" (1781) - epistemology (epistemology),
• "Critic of Practical Reason" (1788) - ethics;
• Criticism of judgment ability (1790) - aesthetics.
Kant's ideas had a tremendous impact on the further development of world philosophical thought. Since the second half of the XIX century. significant development has received such philosophical current as "neo-Kantianism". In the XX century. Kant's serious influence was recognized by the leading representatives of existentialism, the phenomenological school, as well as analytical philosophy and philosophical anthropology.
Philosophy is a system of philosophical knowledge or rational knowledge from concepts. This is the scale concept of this science. According to the world concept (Weltbegriff), it is the science of the last purposes of the human mind. This high concept informs philosophy of dignity, i.e. absolute value. Indeed, it is something that alone has intrinsic value and for the first time gives value to all other knowledge.
After all, it is always asked in the end what is served by philosophizing and its ultimate goal - philosophy itself, considered according to the school concept?
In this scholastic meaning of the word, philosophy has in mind only skill, in the sense of its world concept - utility. In the first sense, it is, therefore, the doctrine of skill; in the latter - the doctrine of wisdom, the legislator of reason, and so far the philosopher is not a virtuoso of the mind, but a legislator.The virtuoso of the mind or, as Socrates calls it, philodox, strives only for speculative knowledge, not paying attention to how much this knowledge contributes to the last purposes of the human mind: it gives rules for the use of reason for all sorts of arbitrary purposes. A practical philosopher - the teacher of wisdom by teaching and deed - is a philosopher in the proper sense. For philosophy is the idea of perfect wisdom, indicating to us the last goals of the human mind.
To philosophy on the school conception there are two things: first, an adequate supply of rational knowledge; secondly, the systematic connection of this knowledge, or their combination in the idea of the whole.
Philosophy not only allows such a strictly systematic connection, but it is the only science that has a systematic connection in its proper sense and gives a systematic unity to all other sciences.
As for philosophy in the world concept (in sensu cosmico), it can also be called the science of the highest maxim of the application of our mind, since under the maxim there is of course the inner principle of choice between different goals.
For in the latter sense, philosophy is the science of the relation of all knowledge and every application of reason to the ultimate goal of the human mind, which, as the highest, is subject to all other goals and in which they must form unity.
The sphere of philosophy in this world-civic meaning can be summed up under the following questions:
What can I know?
What should I do?
What do I dare to hope for?
What is a person?
The first question is metaphysics, the second - morality, the third - religion and the fourth - anthropology. But in essence all this could be reduced to anthropology, for the first three questions relate to the latter.
So, the philosopher should define:
1) the sources of human knowledge,
2) the scope of the possible and useful use of any knowledge and, finally,
3) the boundaries of the mind.
The latter is the most necessary, but also - let the philodox is not upset - and the most difficult.
The philosopher needs mainly two things: 1) a culture of talent and ability to apply them to all sorts of goals; 2) the skill in applying this or that remedy to any purpose. Both must be connected, for without knowledge one can never become a philosopher, but also one knowledge never create philosophers unless the appropriate connection of all knowledge and skills forms a unity and a consciousness of the correspondence of this unity to the higher goals of the human mind arises.
In general, you can not call a philosopher of someone who can not philosophize. Philosophy can be learned only through exercises and independent use of the mind.
And how, in fact, can you learn philosophy? - Every philosophical thinker builds his own building (Werk), so to speak, on the ruins of the previous one, but it never reaches such a state to become solid in all its parts. Therefore, philosophy can not be studied for the reason that it does not yet exist. But even if we assume that it really exists, then none of those who have studied it, could tell about himself that he is a philosopher, because his knowledge of philosophy would always be only subjective and historical.
The situation is different in mathematics. This science can be fully studied to a certain extent, for the evidence is so obvious that everyone can be convinced of them; at the same time, because of its obviousness, it can, so to speak, be preserved as a reliable and lasting teaching.
On the contrary, anyone who wants to learn to philosophize, all the systems of philosophy should be regarded only as a history of the use of reason and as an object for the exercise of his philosophical talent.
Therefore, a true philosopher as an independent thinker must apply his mind freely and in an original way, and is not slavishly imitative. But he must not also use his mind dialectically, directing it only to impart to knowledge the appearance of truth and wisdom. The latter is the occupation of some sophists and is completely incompatible with the dignity of the philosopher as a connoisseur and teacher of wisdom.
For science has intrinsic true value only as an organ of wisdom. But as such it is also necessary for wisdom, so it can be argued that wisdom without science is only a shadow of perfection that we can never achieve.
He who hates science for the sake of love for one wisdom is called a misogist. Mysology usually arises in the absence of scientific knowledge and necessarily associated with this kind of vanity. Sometimes, in the error of misology, those who first with great diligence and success gave themselves to the sciences, but in the end, in all of its knowledge, found no satisfaction.
Philosophy is the only spider that is able to give us this inner satisfaction, for it closes the scientific circle, and thanks to it, sciences for the first time only receive order and communication.
So, for the skill to independent thinking or philosophizing, we should pay more attention to the methods of our application of the mind than to the positions themselves, which we came to using these methods.
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