IG Fichte - Philosophy

And. G. Fichte

A significant place in the development of German classical philosophy belongs to Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814). In Kant's philosophy, he attempted to eliminate the idea of ​​objects in themselves and dialectically derive the whole content of knowledge, i.e. theory and practice, from the activities of our "I". Fichte pointed to the contradiction of the concept of the "object in itself", i.e. "things in themselves", - an unknowable, not influencing the world of phenomena and at the same time enclosing the cause of phenomena. Eliminating this contradiction, Fichte sought to transform Kant's critical method into "subjective idealism," similar to the ideas of J. Berkeley. For Fichte, the real reality is the unity of the subject and object; the world is a subject-object, with the subject playing the leading role. " Fichte constructs the subjective subject-object & quot ;. Relying on the everyday life experience of a person, Fichte proposes to distinguish and contrast the real event with the imaginary, existing only in consciousness. According to Fichte, the attention of consciousness can also be occupied by a fact that has already disappeared from direct contemplation, which was in the past and thus imprinted. Since both the observation of a real event and the recollection of past actions in a person equally passes away part of life, part of the time, Fichte believes that both phenomena, imaginary and real, can be declared equally real. And where is the criterion for such a reality? In the subject! - Fichte answers.

Perceiving an object or thinking about the past, a person forgets himself. Self-forgetfulness is one of the features of a person experiencing a connection with reality. Hence the definition of reality: what tears you away from yourself, and is really happening and filling the present moment of your life. This is, according to Fichte, the beginning and true focus of all philosophy and life. Having come to such a general definition of reality, one can not identify what is connected with the human action in the imagination, with that which does not directly depend on it. Thus, two series of reality are obtained: one will create itself, another arises as a result of the creative act of consciousness of the one who needs its existence. Fichte says: pay attention to this reality, come into contact with it, and it will become an event of an individual life in which the life of an object is, as it were, retained and preserved. The possibility of such a dependence between the real being and the spiritual life of the subject Fichte, like J. Berkeley, extends to the reality in which the person is not located. Hence the course of the entire objective reality is regarded as its possible awareness by man: the real exists only in connection with the life of man. Then Fichte is already completely distracted from the objective reality, doing research on the "real" Only as a fact of consciousness, as an "inner feeling" and soul functions & quot ;. His science of learning (as he calls his entire system) deals only with the definitions of consciousness.

Being an unusually gifted person, Fichte expressed many valuable ideas. Of significant interest are his ethical views. Proceeding from the fact of the plurality of self-determining beings, he formulated the conditions for their joint existence, which consist in the voluntary restriction of the freedom of each person: this restriction is possible first of all if everyone has the rights of free bodily and spiritual development and rights of his own, derived from the influence of freedom on nature. The state, according to Fichte, is the guarantor of the realization of law. In the future, Fichte's views at many points became closer to the teachings of the socialists.

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