Imagination and intuition as ways and forms of cognition and...

Imagination and intuition as ways and forms of cognition and creativity

Creative imagination, imagination - the necessary means of developing a person's ability to change, transform the world. With their help, man carries out both fictions and ideas, so highly raised above the animal.

Fantasy has its own laws, different from the laws of the ordinary logic of thinking. Creative imagination allows for details that are hardly noticeable or completely inconspicuous for the simple eye, for single facts to grasp the general meaning of the new design and the paths leading to it. Other things being equal, a rich imagination protects a scientist from hackneyed paths. A person deprived of creative imagination and guiding idea, in an abundance of facts can not see anything special - he is used to them. Habits in scientific thinking are crutches, on which, as a rule, everything is kept. To achieve the great need independence from established prejudices.

Creative imagination is brought up by the whole course of human life, by the assimilation of the treasures of spiritual culture accumulated by mankind. Art plays an important role in the education of creative imagination. It develops imagination and gives great scope for creative ingenuity.

Regardless of the content, any scientific discovery has some general logic of movement - from searching and isolating the facts, selecting them to process the data obtained as a result of observation and experiment. Then the thought moves to classification, generalization and conclusions. On this basis, hypotheses arise, their selection and subsequent verification in practice, in an experiment. Then a theory is formulated and prediction is carried out.

But logic does not exhaust the spiritual resources of creative thinking.

Do not underestimate the necessary role of imagination and intuition in scientific research. Breaking with the help of irrational jumps ... the hard circle into which deductive reasoning holds us, induction, based on imagination and intuition, makes it possible to realize the great gains of thought; it lies at the basis of all the true achievements of science. Thus (an amazing contradiction!), Human science, essentially rational in its foundations and in its methods, can realize its most remarkable conquests only through dangerous sudden jumps of the mind, when abilities are released from the heavy chains of rigorous reasoning, which are called imagination, intuition, wit. "

Intuition is a kind of semi-instinctive consciousness and at the same time standing above ordinary consciousness, which in its cognitive power is essentially a superconsciousness. Intuition - is the ability to comprehend the truth by direct discretion without justification with the help of evidence.

Intuition grasps the variety of features of an object in their unanimity, "looking" to an object from somewhere because of the backs intellect or, more precisely, from the height of the superconscious. This is "smart contemplation", as if piercing "trivia" particulars and clinging to the very essence of the object.

An experienced doctor immediately, without reasoning, can understand the essence of the disease, and then justifies the correctness of his "scent". Scientists, artists, commanders, statesmen and politicians, inventors have repeatedly noted that the most fruitful periods of the creative process of their thinking are moments of a rush of inspiration, delightful rapture and sudden "enlightenment" thoughts. On the wings of this happy feeling, a man ascends to an amazing sharpness and clarity of consciousness, when his view of things becomes as sharp as possible and he is able to anticipate the result of mental work, instantly running and jumping over its individual links. The composer at that moment, according to Mozart, hears the entire unwritten symphony, and the poet, as Pushkin noted:

And the thoughts in my head are excited in courage,

And the rhymes are light to meet them,

And fingers ask to pen, pen to paper

A minute - and poems will freely flow.

New knowledge that does not flow from the previously obtained rules systems can be obtained heuristically, by creative search, without guaranteeing success in advance - the search-for-man should be prepared for the fact that his searches can fail. Teach a person do discovering and thinking creatively is as impossible as teaching him how to create masterpieces of art. Logic here as little can help, as knowledge of grammatical rules - to teach to create genuinely artistic poems. But intuition is not something supramental or unreasonable. It does not recognize all the signs that lead to withdrawal, and the techniques by which this conclusion is drawn. It is not only a comprehension of the truth, but also a feeling and understanding that this is exactly the truth. Intuition is an emotionally rich understanding of the essence of the problem and its solution, when the scientist grows into a problem and merges with it to the point that already in a dream she pursues him and imperiously requires an answer.

Thinking, feeling and feeling are closely connected in intuition. It brings together scientific knowledge with artistic creativity, and vice versa.

On the wings of intuition, and not only on the ladder of logic, an intellectual leap from the old knowledge to the new, an opening in science, inventions in technology and creation in the field of art. Intuition is enough to discern the truth, but it is not enough to convince others and yourself of this truth. This requires proof.

Proof and Disclaimer

The overwhelming number of positions of science is taken for true not at the level of sensory cognition and not separately from all other truths, but at the level of logical thinking, in connection with other truths, ie, by way of proof. Proof is the vital nerve of scientific thinking.

In any proof, there is a thesis, the reasons for the proof (arguments) and the method of proof. Thesis is a proposition, the truth or falsity of which is explained by means of a proof. The proof by which the falsity of the thesis is clarified is called refutation. All the propositions on which the proof rests and from which the truth of the thesis to be asserted necessarily follows are called bases, or arguments. The latter consist of reliable facts, definitions, axioms and previously proven propositions.

According to VF Asmus, the connection between the bases and conclusions from them, which results in the necessary recognition of the truth of the thesis to be proved, is called the method of proof. Proof of the same position of science can be different, based, for example, on deduction, induction, the use of analogies, modeling, etc. The connection of the bases, leading to the truth of the evidentiary thesis, is not unique. Since it is not given together with the grounds themselves, but must be established, the proof is a theoretical problem.

From primitive methods of proof, based on inaccurate, approximate and therefore often erroneous visual representations, to modern proofs based on certified facts, precisely defined concepts, free of contradictions and sufficient in its number of axioms, as well as already strictly proven before the situation, the practice of proof has gone a long way to improve, raising mental culture to the level of modern science.

So, by considering the problems of the theory of knowledge, we have completed the presentation of the content of those questions that together constitute the foundations of a common philosophy and include the doctrine of being, the categorial structure of philosophical reason and the theory of cognition. Now we turn to the problems of philosophical anthropology, i.e. the doctrine of man and his being in the world, above all about the spiritual world of man.

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