Psychology's First Interscientific Links
The main goal of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with the spectrum of the inter-scientific connections of psychology. As a result of her study, the student must:
• ways to comprehend and overcome the psycho-physiological problem;
• two types of internship connections of psychology;
• features of substantial and meta-scientific ethics;
be able to
• isolate the inter-scientific links of psychology and give them an exhaustive description;
• identify topical psychological problems of an ethical nature;
• methods of evaluating the inter-scientific links of psychology with different types of sciences;
• the ability to interpret the difficulties of the psychology of the moral quality from the standpoint of metascientific psychological ethics;
• ways to assess the most significant methodological difficulties of psychology.
Key terms: psychophysiological problem, nativism, substantial and meta-scientific ethics, crisis of psychology.
Chapter 4 was devoted to inter-theoretical relations - the transitions between the concepts inside theory. Now, the main attention will be paid to the relationship of psychology with other sciences, to what happens "outside" her. In other words, the subject of analysis will be the inter-theoretical relations of psychology. On this way it is impossible to circumvent the psychophysiological problem.
It is called the ratio of the mental, on the one hand, and the physiology of the brain - on the other. As is known, R. Descartes postulated the dualism of the soul and body. Modern scientists, he usually does not like. Overcoming dualism, they differently comprehend the psychophysiological problem, especially often resorting to the concepts outlined below.
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The concept of identity
According to this concept, the brain and the mental are identical, but not identical to each other. The lack of identity is manifested, for example, in the fact that the mind, unlike the brain, does not have mass. Identity is understood as the absence in the mind of something that is not conditioned by brain processes. The most detailed theory of identity was developed by J. Place, G. Feigl and J. Smart. Understanding their work has led to a distinction between the two versions of the concept of identity. In the first case, the identity of the standard states of the brain and the mental state is proclaimed, in the second case, the interpretation of the mental state is reduced to a specific relationship of brain elements and processes. None of the concepts of the identity of the brain and mind could not be confirmed experimentally. Although at first glance it seems that it is quite easy to achieve their empirical justification, it is not so.
Functionalism is the view that mentals are functions of the brain that allow a wide variation in the nature of its elements. This view was especially developed by H. Putnam. Like the concept of identity, functionalism has found no empirical confirmation.
The supernatural concept also does not deny the connection of mentals to brain states: the mental can not change irrespective of the brain mechanisms, but it does not boil down to it. The mental is superevened by the brain; is the product of some of its radical degeneration, which is understood as a super-act (literally: super-emergence). If this reincarnation is understood extremely radically, then they speak of emergence: it seems to remove the mental from its physiological basis further than the superventory. No one, however, can explain how exactly a superventy or an emergence occurs.
The Eliminative concept of the mental is the denial of the reality of the mental. But, alas, it constantly reminds of itself, in particular, a feeling of pain and suffering.
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