Interpreters and detractors Homer. - History of ancient philosophy

Interpreters and detractors Homer.

Despite Homer's authority, and perhaps precisely because of the importance he had for Greek culture, the texts of his works often attracted critical views. Researchers already in antiquity tried to separate Homer's "genuine" from the "unauthentic", revealed contradictions in the texts and, as it seemed, absurdities in the descriptions of events. Representatives of Homeric criticism were divided into enstatics and lits : the first sought to discover contradictions in his texts, the latter, on the contrary, resolve them.

Among the most ancient interpreters of Homeric poetry, Teagena is called from Regia (sixth century BC), who used the method of allegory for explaining the meaning of Homeric works, believing that Homeric myths are parables. Many centuries later, the Neoplatonist Porphyry (circa 233 - circa 306 AD) in the "Homer's Questions" writes about Homer as the author of obscene stories about the gods, which some, however, justify, considering the stories he composed as allegorical narratives about nature. Among these some Porphyry calls Theagen.

In addition to critics who saw in the Homeric epic an example of an allegorical story about the structure of the world, there were those who denounced Homer and Hesiod as liars:

All of the gods built Homer with Hesiod that only

People have a shame or a vice:

Steal, prelub create and each other to deceive [secretly].

Xenophanes. Cylls & quot ;. (Translated by L. V. Lebedev).

So about Xomer and Hesiod spoke Xenophanes Colophonsky, whom some consider the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy. Heraclitus of Ephesus, decrying myology, in one of the aphorisms expresses doubt in Homer's wisdom: "The people were deceived by phenomena, like Homer, the gift that the Goth was wiser than all Hellenes." , and in another and does say that "Homer was worth to be kicked out of the competition and carved" . Heraclitus also owns these words: "The knowledge of the mind does not teach, or it would teach Hesiod and Pythagoras, as well as Xenophanes and Hecataeus" . The last name on this list belongs to one of the first Greek historians from among the so-called Log Logos - Hecatee of Miletus (the end of VI - the beginning of the V century BC). Works of logographers are devoted to the reconstruction of the legendary history, geography (geography), the study of the genealogy of the gods and heroes. In addition to personal observations, they widely used the epic tradition, in particular Homeric epic, to which they took very seriously, believing that the stories told by Homer were in fact true, although they contain some implausible descriptions. Logographers saw their task in the demythologization of the epic.

Finally, the story of the fate of the Homeric epic in Antiquity can not be considered complete without mentioning two more names - Plato and Aristotle. In the Platonic dialogues quite often there are quotes from the "Iliad" and Odyssey & quot ;. Serious philosophical reflection of poetry in general and the epic in particular are subjected to the dialogue "State". This will be discussed in more detail in the chapter devoted to Plato; for the time being we refer to the words of the domestic historian of ancient thought, T. V. Vasilieva, who in her book "The Athenian School of Philosophy" calls Plato "the rival of Homer".

Aristotle refers to Homer in the treatise "Poetics", devoted to the theory of poetic art, which will also be discussed in detail in the corresponding chapter.

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