J.-P. Sartre, Positivism O. Comte - Philosophy

J.-P. Sartre

A characteristic feature of the philosophical views of the French philosopher and writer, the representative of existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) is that for the most part they were embodied in the images of works of art, although he actually had philosophical works (for example, "Genesis and Nothing", 1943). The main problems of his philosophical reflection are the sovereignty of consciousness, the meaning of being and the ontological status of the individual, the specificity of human existence as a "fundamental incompleteness" and self-consciousness, the randomness of our being in the world, the problem of openness and the "events of history" and peace. Sartre paid special attention to the problem of freedom of will, in the interpretation of which he showed obvious maximalism, believing that every person, with free will, is responsible for everything that is going on in the world. Here responsibility is not linked to the measure of involvement to events. In his philosophical judgments, Sartre proceeded from the ideas of R. Descartes, S. Kierkegaard, 3. Freud, E. Husserl, M. Heidegger.

In the works of Imagination (1936), Imaginary (19-10) Sartre regards the phenomenon of imagination as a means of detaching consciousness from the world and positing a non-existent. After analyzing the problem with the outstanding minds of the past, in particular, I. Kant, Sartre's arguments on this issue look, to put it mildly, not very professional. The same can be said about the description of self-consciousness, which he treats as some kind of "transparency" for the subject of consciousness. This is an obvious simplification: we are not so transparent to ourselves. Sartre talks about "empty consciousness" - this contradicts the scientific and philosophical tradition and the very essence of the matter, and in addition, the assertion of Sartre himself: the factuality of consciousness must be a permanent lot of the individual. One can not agree with the idea of ​​Sartre that a person, choosing his epoch, chooses himself in it. All this is much more complicated. A person does not choose an era. Sartre falls into the exaggeration of a person's possibilities, proceeding from the fact that a person constantly builds himself up to the smallest detail and that nothing seems to be given to a person, and he himself must constantly integrate his factuality into his universe. Sartre subtly noticed that a person always "stumbles" on his own responsibility and that he does not have an "alibi" (but in fact in some cases it is). It is true that a person constantly implements the "sovereign choice" in their actions and in general in behavioral acts. Sartre's political views are characterized by a mixture of immovable: the positions of humanism, democracy and left-wing extremism. His attempt to synthesize Marxism and existentialism is also unsuccessful. I. Fichte, as we have already mentioned, said: "What a person, so is philosophy." This is a lot of truth.

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Positivism of O. Comte

Positivism (positivisme, from the Latin positivus - positive) is a philosophical trend, stating that the source of a genuine, "positive" (positive) knowledge there can be only separate concrete (empirical) sciences and their synthetic associations, and philosophy as a special science can not claim an independent investigation of reality. The founder of this direction is the French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857), who in the 1830s. introduced the term. Positive philosophy, according to Comte, can become the only solid foundation for social organization, thanks to which the crisis that has been experienced by the most civilized nations will end. Only when the combination of minds in a single communication of principles is achieved, all the institutions that are needed will flow out of it without any major upheavals, since the greatest disorder will already be destroyed by one single fact. Thus, it turns out that to produce a "connection of minds in a single communication of principles" and through it deliver "a solid foundation for social reorganization and for a really normal order of things" and is the purpose of positivism.

According to Comte, a view of the general mental development of mankind, the result of which is positivism, indicates that there is a "basic historical law" (which constitutes the discovery of Comte, in the opinion of himself and all his followers). According to this law, each of our main concepts, each branch of our knowledge, passes consistently through three different theoretical states: the state theological, or the state of fiction; state metaphysical, or abstract; state scientific, or positive. In other words, the human mind by its nature uses successively in each of its studies three methods, the nature of which is essentially different and even radically opposed: first, the theological method, then the metaphysical , and finally , positive. Hence the three kinds of philosophy, or general systems, embracing phenomena in their whole and mutually exclusive: the first system is the necessary point of departure of the human mind; the third is a firm and final state, and the second serves only as a transition. Moreover, for positivism, in accordance with its own principle, there are no other real sciences other than natural science studying the phenomena of the external world.

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This direction, although called by the very meaning of the word positive, but contains a lot of negative points. Positivism, beginning already with Comte, denies almost all of the preceding development of philosophy and essentially insists (in whom, to a greater extent, at whom to a lesser extent) on the identity of philosophy and science, and this is unproductive. Philosophy by its very essence (both the subject and the method) is an independent field of knowledge, based on the entire array of culture, including natural science, social science, art, and the everyday experience of mankind.

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