Critical-constructivist theory of V. Klafka
Wolfgang Klafki is perhaps the most famous teacher of modern Germany. He pays special attention to didactics. Initially, according to his philosophical ideas, he adjoined the hermeneutt (V. Dilthey, H.-G. Gadamer), who insisted on the need to achieve understanding in the process of intersubject dialogue. This position was criticized, in particular by Yu. Habermas. Germenevts were accused of conservatism, expressed in a lack of critical attitude to the existing social and political order. Similar arguments were advanced against Klafka. He reacted to accusations in his address, becoming the leader of the criticism and constructivist pedagogy. This meant that he moved to the positions of representatives of the Frankfurt School in philosophy, critical hermeneutics. Clafki gave their ideas a didactic character.
Didactics is critical, "because one should remember about interference that hinders the achievement of educational and social goals. These barriers should not be perceived as something self-evident. Together with other bodies should work on their elimination. " It is constructive, "because it is not satisfied with the already existing provisions within the framework of this institutional and educational form, but formulates something like a concrete utopia." It means that one should use the achievements of the theory, various models for possible effective practices that contribute to the development of a humanistic and democratic school.
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In full accordance with the provisions are no longer traditional, but critically rethought the hermeneutics of Klafka suggests that the school is designed to educate the students three main features: self-determination, participation in public affairs and solidarity. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the context of typical for the era problems: the issue of peace, environmental crises, social inequality, the dangers of the technological plan and the difficulties associated with the implementation of harmonic interpersonal relations. Students should acquire diverse, including cognitive, emotional, aesthetic, social, technical and practical and ethical interests and skills.
Clafki seeks to interpret the content of didactics from the standpoint of fundamental principles.
1. Model value ("What will students learn today?").
2. The actual meaning ("What does this mean for today's students?").
3. Future meaning ("What does the new knowledge mean for future students?").
4. What is the content structure?
5. Accessibility of knowledge ("How to ensure students understand new information"?).
Clafki believes that the principles of didactics determine the scheme for preparing teachers for each training session. This time we are talking about the seven principles that should guide the teacher:
• the modern value of the teaching material;
• Its value for the future;
• exemplary knowledge;
• The thematic structure of the training material;
• Proof and verification of the connection of material with epochal problems;
• Ensuring the availability of knowledge for students.
• presentation of the educational material as a methodical structure.
Let us pass to a critical assessment of the theory of Klafka. Attention is drawn to his desire for generalizations. In this regard, he addresses, firstly, philosophy, and secondly - to didactics, which is considered primary in relation to the methodology. It turns out the following line of reasoning: philosophy → didactics → methodology. But where do we include science, in particular, mathematics, physics, economics, political science, etc.? The most obvious way they manifest their presence in private techniques. Naturally, the question arises about the legitimacy of their attribution to the end of the above chain of disciplines. It is worth pondering over this circumstance, as immediately it becomes obvious that Klafka lacks a meta-scientific approach. As a result, both philosophy and didactics acquire speculative traits. They must express the innermost content of the sciences. But instead, philosophy and didactics are prescribed to them. Science does not need a speculative cover. Both philosophy and didactics acquire vitality only if they are given a meta-scientific character. This circumstance eluded Klafka's attention. His paradigm would have acquired greater vitality if the philosophy of science were in place of philosophy, which would be understood not as a universal set of generalizing provisions, but as inter-theoretical relations between the philosophies of individual branches of scientific knowledge (from mathematics and computer science to technical and social sciences). Thus, the theory of Klafka lacks a metascience that would significantly increase her pedagogical power.
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1. V. Klafki developed a variant of criticism-constructivist pedagogy.
2. He did not use the potential of metascience.
3. As a result, his philosophy and didactics acquired a speculative character.
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