Labor theory of anthropogenesis
Factors and criteria for hominization
Hominization (from Latin homo - man) - the process of humanizing the monkey before the appearance of the species Homo sapiens . This process includes:
• the development of stranding,
• progressive transformations of the brain and especially its evolutionarily later department - the neocortex;
• adaptation of the hand to work;
• changes in the dentoalveolar apparatus
• the formation of articulate speech, conceptual thinking, consciousness, intelligence;
• reorganization of ontogenesis;
• Development of social organization;
• formation of material culture, etc.
F. Engels on the role of labor in the emergence of man.
The decisive factor of hominization was labor activity. The labor theory of anthropogenesis in the classical version was set forth by F. Engels in his work "The Role of Labor in the Process of Converting a Monkey into Man" (1873-1876). The basis of the concept is Engels' thesis that labor is the first basic condition of all human life, and moreover to the extent that we must in a certain sense say: labor has created man himself " .
The most important points of the concept: 1) highlighting the erection as a decisive step in the humanization of the monkey; 2) the characteristic of the hand as the organ and product of labor; 3) analysis of the process of the emergence of sound language and articulate speech, as well as human thinking as a consequence of social development; 4) identification of the qualitative originality of anthropogenesis as a process of active adaptation of man to the environment;
5) characterization of the environmental superiority of a reasonable person over other species.
The transition to the manufacture of tools marks a decisive leap in the process of the transformation of the monkey into man and the emergence of human society. In addition, tools of labor are also the main way of transferring social experience, i.e. lie at the basis of a new, social form inheritance, which Charles Darwin did not consider. F. Engels stressed the decisive role of labor not only in the manufacture of tools and the satisfaction of human needs, but also in changing the very essence of man, the emergence of his consciousness, thinking and speech.The decisive condition for the separation of man from the animal world and the emergence of human society was, first, the production of tools of labor, the second, the emergence of a division of labor, third, such division and specialization of labor led to a significant increase in its productivity.
Work is an expedient activity, therefore it presupposes the existence of consciousness , which must precede labor. On the other hand, consciousness itself arises where social ties between people based on work activity already exist. To resolve this contradiction, it is necessary to identify that common cause, which ultimately can explain the emergence of a specific human consciousness.
Apparently, at a certain stage of the biological evolution of primates, aggressive and instinctive motivations of some groups met strong resistance from other groups that threatened their very existence. It was necessary to impose a taboo, a ban on them, and direct purely animal inclinations and aggression along a different path, namely, to present them in your imagination. On the basis of this imagination, the human values themselves, oriented toward establishing order and rules of behavior in developing collectives, were gradually formed, the first principles of morality are formed.
The process of labor led primitive man to operate with abstract concepts. The handling of objects by the higher monkeys has an immediate goal - to get food. And if the monkey is enough "to think" with the help of hands and objects, then a person must first realize in his mind the connection between the process of making the tool and its subsequent use for obtaining food, then reproduce this connection in real labor operations. Operating with tools is preceded by operating concepts.
It is essential that the mechanism of conditioned reflexes allows to maintain a sequence of 5-7 consecutive actions (remember the behavior of the Pavlov dog, which reacts to the sequence of signals preceding the consumption of food). The simplest tool of labor - pebbles with chipped edges (typical artifacts Olduvai culture) could be produced just by using so many labor operations. The complication of the tools also requires the complication of the labor process (see Figure 2 in the workshop for this chapter). Such a process could not be mastered by a system of conditioned reflexes. There is a need for conceptual thinking, through which the labor process is mastered. Gradually speech appears as a tool of thinking and a means of communication.
A good analogy of the process of a person's transition from manual operations to mental operations is the intellectual development of the child.
At the initial stage of its development, real tools are replaced by a toy, but in it are embodied some actual features used in the practical activities of objects. Breaking, and later collecting a toy, the child initially "thinks" hands, almost mastering the operations of analysis (break down) and synthesis (collect). On this basis, he develops the ability to perform analysis and synthesis in the mind, as psychologists say, the activity of the actor takes place: external-objective activity passes into the internal plan of mental operations.
Gradually, with the penetration of man into the depth of things, words denote more and more abstract concepts, thereby creating the possibility of abstract thinking. The accumulation and systematization of knowledge gained in the course of labor and practical activity has become a new, important social value. In this process, thinking played a decisive role.
With the help of sign language, one could only allow or forbid certain actions, warn of danger, and so on. Therefore, the further development of language went on the way of turning the slurred language into articulate and articulated language. This process was carried out gradually and extremely slowly.
The development of tools and forms of labor serve as the basis for the evolution of material culture. As the most ancient era of human history, the Stone Age is distinguished. Within the Stone Age, the Paleolithic is distinguished, or the ancient stone period, when pebbled tools of labor prevailed, hand-chopped and chipped large pebble stones, or choppers, on one side. In Middle Paleolithic , in the manufacture of compound tools, bone and wood are used along with the stone.
The fundamental change in the tools and character of labor occurred in the Neolithic, or the new Stone Age. From gathering and hunting primitive people moved, first, to hoe farming, the cultivation of cereals and other plants; second, to livestock raising through the taming of wild animals. The ego forced them to lead a sedentary lifestyle and begin building permanent dwellings.
Already within the framework of the primitive herd, a relationship of unity between hunters arises, in which the hostile relationship inherited from the animal ancestors was overcome. Instead of instincts, a simple morality is gradually put forward in the form of such prohibitions as "do not kill" and ns steal & quot ;. Simultaneously with the improvement of labor skills, the strengthening of the cohesion of collectives and the formation of the simplest rules of morality, the development of the consciousness of primitive people, their thinking and speech also occurred.
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