M. Heidegger. What is philosophy?
Heidegger Martin (1889-1976) - the largest German philosopher, who had a serious influence on the European philosophical thought of the XX century. He was a student of Husserl. He taught in Marburg, Freiburg. He founded an anti-scientist version of the linguistic turn. Developed the theme of meaning, essence and "oblivion" being. Introduced the concept of "techno-science". Influenced many philosophers and thinkers.
As a representative of existentialism, Heidegger made a significant contribution to the development of phenomenology. His philosophical views were most closely associated with the forms of everyday existence, or, in his words, with the ways of "being in the world". The works of Heidegger are mainly devoted to the problems of classical and modern philosophy. He explored the meaning of being, described the forms in which being manifests itself, and also traced the historical and philosophical corpus of the notion of being and their influence on the modern "technological" interpretation of nature.
Major works: Being and Time (1927); Kant and the problem of metaphysics (1929); Introduction to Metaphysics (1935); A letter about humanism (1947).
Asking: What is philosophy? - we are talking about philosophy. Thus, we are clearly above philosophy, i.e. outside. However, the aim of our question is to enter into philosophy, to settle in it, to behave in accordance with it, that is, philosophize & quot ;. Therefore, the course of our conversation should not only have a clear direction, but its direction must at the same time guarantee that we are moving within philosophy, not outside it and not around it.
Our conversation, therefore, must go along such a path and in such a direction that what the philosophy says about, concerns us, touches us, and it is in our essence.
But will not philosophy then become a matter of propensities, emotions and feelings? And what is mind? Where and by whom was it decided that such a mind?
The greatest care is required when we venture to start a conversation on the topic what is this - philosophy?
The path that I now want to point out lies directly in front of us. Thus, the Greek word philosophy there is a way that we go. ... The very essence of philosophy is rooted in the fact that it took over first the Greek world, and only them to develop themselves in it.
Location philosophy is inherently Greek. means one thing: the West and Europe, and only they, in the deep course of their history, were originally "philosophical." This is evidenced by the emergence and domination of science. And because science comes from the depths of Western Europe - that is, philosophical - the flow of history, today they are able to impose a kind of stamp on the history of mankind throughout the earth. A spider would never have been, if it had not been preceded, not ahead of their philosophy. ... The Greek word weaves our conversation into a historical tradition.
The word philosophy as it were on the birth certificate of our own history, one might even say on the birth certificate of the modern era of world history, which is called the atomic age. So the question "what is philosophy?" we can ask only if we enter into a conversation with the thinking of the Greek world.
However, the Greek origin has not only what is in question - philosophy, but also the way we ask; The way we ask even today is Greek.
We ask: what is this ..? ... But the question "what is there something?" remains still many-valued. We can ask: what is there in the distance? And we get the answer: a tree. The answer lies in the fact that we give a name to a certain thing, which we have not recognized, by us. And still you can ask further: what is what we call a tree? This is the form of inquiry that Socrates, Plata, and Aristotle developed. They ask, for example: what is beautiful? What is cognition? nature? motion? Asking about philosophy - "what is this?", We always ask the original Greek question. When we delve into the full and original meaning of the question, "what is this philosophy?", Our inquiry, through its historical source, acquires the direction of the historical future. We found a way. The question itself is the way. He leads from the Greek world to us, if not further, through us. We go - if we firmly stick to the question - on a well-directed path. However, we still do not have a guarantee that we are able to follow this path right away. We can not even determine where we are going today.
The question of what is something is usually described as a matter of essence. He wakes up, then when something about the essence of what is asked is obscured and confused and, at the same time, the attitude of the person to the questioner becomes unstable when it is shaken, even undermined.
Our question concerns the essence of philosophy. If it arises from a certain need and should not remain only an imaginary question set for maintaining a conversation, then philosophy must be in question as a philosophy. All implies here: the whole, everything that exists.
Being is existence. In this case, is is a transitive verb and means assembled & quot ;. Being collects things as being. Being is gathering-Logos. Everything is in Being. For our hearing this sounds trivial, if not offensively. After all, the fact that Being belongs to Being, no one needs to care. The whole world knows: the existent is that it is. What else remains to exist, how not to be? And yet, it is precisely that what exists is gathered in Being, that what exists appears in the light of Being, astonished the Greeks, above all them, and only them. Being in Genesis, it became for the Greeks the most amazing.
Meanwhile, even the Greeks had to save the awesomeness of this amazing and protect it from the grip of a sophistic mind, which for everything had a lucid explanation at its ready and supplied it to the market. To save the most amazing thing - what exists in Being - was possible due to the fact that some people set out on their way towards this most amazing, ie. wisdom. What follows from what has been said for our attempt to discuss the question "what is philosophy?" First of all, one thing: we must not adhere to the only definition of Aristotle. From this we conclude another: one must have an idea about earlier and later definitions of philosophy.
And then? Then, with the help of comparative abstraction, we will reveal the common in all definitions.
And then? Then we will be very far from answering our question. Why did everything come to this? Because, following the method just mentioned, we collect historically the available definitions and dissolve them in a certain general formula. All this, if you have a lot of erudition and the right settings, you can really do it. At the same time, we do not need to enter philosophy at all, to reflect on this essence. We thus acquire versatile, thorough and even useful knowledge about what ideas have developed about philosophy in the course of its history.
But in this way we will never get to the real one, i.e. a reliable answer to the question "what is philosophy?"
When the answer to the question is "what is philosophy?" is philosophizing? When do we philosophize? Only then, obviously, when we enter into a conversation with philosophers.
This suggests that we talk with them about what they are discussing. This is talking to each other about what, in fact, again and again, as philosophers turn to the same thing, there is speech, in the sense of dialectics, speech as a dialogue. Whether the dialogue is necessarily a dialectic and when, we leave it open.
It is one thing to state and describe the opinions of philosophers, and quite another to talk with them about the fact that they traditionally discuss what they are talking about. The answer to the question "what is philosophy?" is in our correspondence to what philosophy is leading to. And this is the Being of Being.
We find the answer to our question about philosophy not in the definitions of philosophy derived from history, but in a conversation with what was handed down to us by tradition as the Being of Being.
... (Destruction does not mean destruction, but the abolition, analysis, removal of the accumulated in the history of statements about the history of philosophy.
Destruction means: to open your ears, to release the hearing for what it says to us in the tradition of Being being.)
Philosophy is a self-fulfilling correspondence, which speaks, as he hears the call of Being of Being. This correspondence hears the voice of Being. What appeals to us as the voice of Being, disposes of our correspondence.
Compliance means hence: to be located, "tre dispos", and it is the Existence of existence. Dis-pos means here literally the following: located separately, clarified and thus left in relation to what is. Being as such, disposes speech in such a way that it is set up (accorder) on the Being of Being. Compliance is customized necessarily and always, and not only occasionally and accidentally. It is a certain mood. And only on the basis of disposition the correspondence of the correspondence gets its accuracy, its location.
But the indication of the essential attitude of conformity is not a certain modern invention. Already the Greek thinkers, Plato and Aristotle, have noticed that philosophy and philosophizing belong to that dimension of a person, which we call the mood (in the sense of the order and location).
Plato says (Teetet 155d): "For the philosopher, it is extremely characteristic that it is a surprise, it is the source (philosophy) for example, the washing of the hands of the surgeon precedes the operation." Surprise leads philosophy and ubiquitously dominates it.
The same is said by Aristotle (Met. A2, 982 b 12 sq): "It is thanks to surprise that people now, as for the first time, reach the mainstream of philosophizing" (of the origin of philosophizing and what determines the entire course of philosophizing).
It would be too superficial, premature and not in Greek to think that Plato and Aristotle claim here only that surprise is the reason for philosophizing. If they were of this opinion, this would mean the following: once people were surprised precisely to the existent, to what it is and what it is. Under the influence of surprise they began to philosophize. As soon as philosophy was in motion, surprise, as an impulse, became redundant and therefore disappeared. "It could have disappeared, be it only a jolt." But - there is surprise ... passion, excitement.
... Surprise is the mood in which Greek philosophers were given a correspondence to the Being of Being.
A completely different kind of mood, which prompted thinking in a new way to put the traditional question of existence as existent and thereby begin a new era of philosophy. Descartes in Reflections asked: ... what is that which is truly existing in the sense of ens certum. Meanwhile, for Descartes, the essence of certitudo has changed. ... Doubt becomes for him the mood in which the mood for ens certum is vibrating, authentically.
... Because of this, the sub-jectum is distinguished as the ego and the human essence first enters the field of objectivity in the sense of egocentrism. From the mood for this certitudo, Descartes' speech gets the certainty of some clear and distinct perception. The spirit of doubt becomes a positive consensus with certainty. From now on, reliability becomes a mere form of truth.
What is the completion of the philosophy of modern times, if at all we can talk about it? Is this end determined in some other way? Where should we look for the completion of the philosophy of modern times? Already in the philosophy of Hegel or in the philosophy of the late Schelling? And what about Marx and Nietzsche? Are they out of the rut of the philosophy of modern times? If not, how can you determine their location?
It would seem that we only ask historical questions. In fact, we are thinking about the future nature of philosophy. We try to listen to the voice of being. In what mood does he lead today's thinking? This question can hardly be answered unequivocally.
Probably, some basic mood prevails today. However, while it remains hidden for us. This should be considered a sign that today's thinking has not yet found its only way. We observe only different kinds of thinking. Doubt and despair, on the one hand, and a blind obsession with unverified principles, on the other, are opposed to each other. Fear and fear are mixed with hope and confidence. Often we think that thinking, which has the character of a reasoning representation and calculus, is completely free from any mood. But the coldness of calculation, and the prosaic sobriety of the plan are the signs of a certain mood. And ns only; even the mind, striving to be free from all the influence of passions, is tuned, being a mind, to the confidence in the logical-mathematical comprehensibility of its principles and rules.
It is the self-acceptance and conformity that we carry out, which responds to the call of Being of Being, is philosophy.
We learn and know what philosophy is, only when we test how, how philosophy exists. It exists in a melody of correspondence tuned to the voice of Being of Being.
This correspondence is a kind of speech. It is in the service of the language. What this means today is difficult to understand, because our familiar notion of language has undergone a strange transformation. As a result, language has become an expression tool. As a result, it is more correct to say that language is in the service of thinking, instead of: thinking, as correspondence, is in the service of the language.
Because without a sufficient understanding of the language, we will never truly know what philosophy is as a specified correspondence, what is philosophy as a special manner of narration.
However, I would like to bring those present to the grouping, in which we refer to what we call Being of Being. Calling this, we think about what Aristotle already said: "Existence-Being comes to light in many ways."
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