Man and technology, On the demonism of technology - Philosophy

Man and Technology

Man has always been associated with technology; he produces and uses or consumes machinery products, but at the same time the person himself is a product of his technical activity. The historical process of technology development includes three main stages: manual tools, machines, automata. Technology in its development now, perhaps, begins to approach the human level, moving from the analogy with physical labor and its organization to analogies with the mental properties of man. So far we have reached the zoological stage of technology, which is really much developed.

The less material, physical or visual is the technical imitation of a person, the more difficult it is to master and control technology. Since everything that is done by a person comes from its humanity, technology is always a means for self-realization and self-knowledge. According to A. Hunig, technology in all historical moments expresses people and the idea of ​​humanity of this time. This becomes clear as a result of developments in modern technology, especially in such industries as microbiology and informatics. New discoveries and inventions in this area can lead to new knowledge about man and the human world.

One of the most important problems, which is the philosophy of technology, is the problem and the concept of a person who creates and uses technology. The peculiarity of this problem is now connected with the technological power that has been available to man. At the same time, the number of people affected by technical measures or their side effects has increased to an enormous extent. The people affected by these impacts are no longer in direct contact with those who produce these effects. Further, natural systems themselves become the subject of human activity. Man by his interference can constantly violate them and even destroy them. Undoubtedly, this is an entirely new situation: never before has a man possessed such power to be able to destroy life in a partial ecological system and even on a global scale or decisively bring it to degeneracy. Therefore, society should not, without preliminary expertise, produce everything that it can produce, should not do all that it can do, and certainly not immediately after the discovery of new technical capabilities.

Having created such an instrument of labor as computer - a cybernetic system modeling various types of mental activity, operating with complex types of information, a person produced his intellectual-information analogue, created a pseudo-subject. Of course, a computer system is primarily a tool of labor. A person actively influences him, comprehending, when interacting with him, his possibilities, changes, improves him - this is one side of the interaction, which can be conditionally called an object one. At the same time, a modern computer is no longer a simple tool. Although not fully and not in perfect form, it is a functional analogue of mental activity. Man, interacting with him, is experiencing his influence - this is another, relatively speaking, humanitarian side of interaction. According to the outstanding American mathematician and philosopher, the founder of cybernetics and the theory of artificial intelligence Norbert Wiener (1894-1964), the problem of joint functioning, mutual communication of man and machine is one of the key problems of cybernetics. The production of personal computers has reached tens of millions a year, in the sphere of interaction with computers involving a large number of people around the world. Therefore, the problem of human interaction with the computer from the problem of cybernetics, psychology and other special disciplines in the coming years can grow into a global, universal.

The interaction between man and machine is this interaction between thinking, feeling, endowed with will and consciousness being and inanimate, non-biological by nature device. The person is guided by the motive, comprehends the object of activity, realizes the goal, develops the means for achieving it, takes into account in his activities the various features of this instrument of labor, on the basis of which one can achieve the necessary result. The machine, of course, is devoid of motivation to solve the problem, it does not have an interpersonal relationship to the partner partner and there is no need to build this kind of relationship to achieve the goal. The very goal is set by the machine from outside - by whom it is controlled. The machine is not available inaccurate language, vague statements. It requires a person to be able to operate with literal meanings, build their messages in strict accordance with the rules of formal logic.

On the demonism of technology

Demonism is the symbol of the evil beginning. When it comes to demonism as applied to technology, it refers to the unpredictable disastrous consequences of its use for man, society and all mankind, its pernicious impact on nature. According to K. Jaspers, insightful people have for a long time embraced the horror of the technical world, a horror that, in fact, was not yet fully understood by them. Goethe's controversy with Newton becomes understandable, Jaspers says, only if one proceeds from the shock that Goethe felt, looking at the successes of the exact sciences, from his unconscious knowledge of the approaching catastrophe in the world of people. At the same time, many social thinkers defended the principles of historical progress, pinning their hopes on an ever deeper knowledge of nature and on the achievements of technology, believing that this will bring universal happiness. Some of the negative consequences of the use of technology then seemed only a consequence of abuse, the essence of which can be clarified and the consequences corrected.

What is the threat of technical progress to mankind? Jaspers believed that the ever increasing share of labor leads to mechanization and automation of the working person's work: labor does not ease the burden of man in his persistent impact on nature, but turns it into a part of the machine. It is necessary to emphasize this idea: the technique, being created by man, is aimed at transforming the person himself in the course of transformation of all labor activity: his thinking, the whole storehouse of his soul becomes more and more "technocratic". In this regard, Jaspers remarks that the technology contains not only the boundless possibilities of useful, but also limitless dangers: the technique has turned into an all-encompassing force. Never before had a man possessed such creative technical capabilities and never had such destructive means. Can we hope that all the troubles that are associated with technology, one day will be subordinated to the power of man? This fatal question torments the minds and hearts of globally-minded people. Often you can hear the answer, imbued with deep sadness: the demon of technology there is no justice. Enthusiastic with the invention, the improvement of technical means, people go all the forces of their soul into the very process of creativity, moreover economically highly motivated by the demands of the market. Everyone thinks about their own, but in general we are all heading for an imminent catastrophe. And the case, apparently, only in time. The whole future destiny of man, according to Jaspers, depends on the way in which he subordinates the consequences of technical development and their influence on his life, starting from the organization of the whole available to his own behavior at every given minute, including communication with nature, and wilted life forces.

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