Man, society and nature: problems of ecology, On the...

Man, society and nature: problems of ecology

On the unity of man and nature

It seems that it's easier - to divide the natural and social principles: some objects are attributed to nature, and others - to society. In fact, this is not so simple. The trees in the garden are planted by man. Their seeds and the process of growth are a natural fact. Soil is a part of nature transformed by man. Pets are objects of nature, in which, to a certain extent, human goals are realized through artificial selection. The buildings are built by man, and the materials used for this purpose are a gift of nature. Man is, of course, a natural being; he is the crown of nature, the highest biological species, but he is above all a social being. Man lives on the Earth within its thin shell - geographical environment. This is the part of nature that is in particularly close interaction with society and which is affected by it. The geographical environment includes not only the river that is directly or indirectly connected with human activity, but also the canal, not only the shore, but also the dam, not only the forest, but also the artificial forest belt, as well as fields, pastures and pastures , and meadows, and cities, and all other settlements, climatic and soil conditions, minerals, vegetable and animal kingdom. In a geographical environment, life has evolved and developed: the history of mankind is the continuation of the history of the Earth. According to AI Herzen, these are two chapters of one novel, two phases of one process, very far at the edges and extremely close in the middle. The geographical environment is that part of nature (the earth's crust, the lower part of the atmosphere, water, soil and soil cover, flora and fauna), which is a necessary condition of society's life, being involved in the process of social being. We are connected to the geographic environment blood ties, and beyond it our life is impossible: it is the natural basis of human life. Between the natural and social principles there is no abyss, which, of course, does not mean lack of qualitative specifics. Despite all its qualitative differences, society remains part of a larger whole - nature.

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And what do we generally understand by nature? Although with the word nature very diverse meanings come together, but when it speaks of nature in general, without any immediate definition, then, according to VS Soloviev, there is always meant some essential and in itself a single beginning that produces all things from itself. The etymological meaning of the word "nature" also agrees with this, which indicates that the beginning of the work or generation of things is being written. Since nature produces all of itself, we find in it the foundation of all things: it is their common common ground. Since the emergence of society on Earth, there are three kinds of processes: natural, specifically societal and, as it were, fused, which combine both.

Dialectics of the interaction of nature and society is such that as society develops, its direct dependence on nature decreases, and the indirect one - increases. This is understandable: learning more and more the laws of nature and on their basis transforming nature, man increases his power over her; At the same time, in the course of its development, society enters into ever wider and deeper contact with nature. Man, historically, and ontogenetically constantly, day by day communicates with nature. So, according to IA Il'in, the situation is with the farmer and the laboratory scientist, the railway guard and the artist ... Each of them in his own way comes into contact with nature. Everyone learns from her, everyone tries to adapt to it, use it for their own purposes, how to persuade her. And this is the listening to the persuasion of nature, this mastering of her teaching has carried, this cautious overcoming and subordination is for every spiritually living person one of the joys in earthly life. It happens that his nature wins, refines his beauty with his aesthetic feelings, sometimes punishes, and sometimes rewards him with a hundredfold.

Nature requires reciprocity: it needs not only to take, but also to give. Nature in the early stages of the formation of society was either an all-powerful despotic mother, as VS Solovyov says, an infant or someone else's slave, a thing. In this second era, an unconscious and timid sense of love for nature has awakened as an equal creature that has or can have life in itself.

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