Mass culture and anticulture - Philosophy for technical universities

Mass culture and anticulture

At the very beginning of the XX century. O.Spengler's gloomy predictions about the "decline of Europe", the death of a high culture, the gradual replacement of cultural (spiritual) values ​​by the values ​​of civilization in their grossly material embodiment were sounded. By the middle of the century, culturally-pessimistic sentiments began to be expressed through the concepts of "mass society" and mass culture & quot ;. In general, the pessimism of culturologists is based on the fact that the general background culture of the twentieth century. turned out to be considerably lower than the level that the intellectuals who had gone into the past of the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries accustomed to. - golden age European culture. What exactly are the indicators and reasons for the decline in the cultural background of the 20th century?

The gradual process of democratization of public life, the achievement of a high material level, the technical equipment of the basic production processes led to the formation of a mass society in which cultural values ​​ceased to be elitist property and were egalitarian (egalitarian), which led to the emergence of mass culture, . averaged culture created by mass media and replicated with the help of a special, technically highly-equipped industry. Mass culture has as its historical goal information to the general public about the possibilities of culture, its language, the skills necessary for the perception of art, but mass culture can not replace the touch of high art. However, at any level, culture in its broadest sense is a humanistically oriented value. And everything that decomposes this value, there is an anticulture.

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Expression mass culture usually use with a sense of neglect, referring to something dissolved in the fresh water of the majority. " But the concept of mass culture can be understood and positively - millions of people are attracted to culture. The meaning of the expression "mass culture" is negative. is that often not the masses are given the opportunity to rise to the level of a real culture; on the contrary, the culture itself, being counterfeited to the primitive tastes of the backward layers of the population, is lowered, simplified and deformed, to a level shocking genuine upbringing-something that is gray, primitive, and at times even specifically intoxicating is presented to a clever, highly educated mass.

The mass culture is not necessarily its low level, if only for primitive thinkers. After all, and the broad masses of the people can and should be given something real, seeking to raise them to the spiritually high, even to the greatest masterpieces of culture. In order to improve the culture of the people, one must turn to the history of culture, to the entire cultural heritage of mankind, and not to try to pull the highly educated layers of society downwards - to something simplistic. From time immemorial, there have been, are, and will be people with different inclinations and with different levels of intellectual ability and education. A cultural figure, anyone who chooses to pick up a pen, is responsible to society, to a person. The fate of culture in the hands of man.

Three areas of human culture, "M. wrote. M. Bakhtin, that is. science, art and life, gain unity only in the person who brings them to their unity ... For what I experienced and got into art, I must respond with my life, so that everything experienced and understood does not remain inactive in it. But responsibility is also associated with guilt. Life and art should not only be brought together, but also for each other. The poet must remember that in his vulgar prose of life his poetry is to blame, but let the man of life know that his sterility and the frivolity of his vital questions are to blame for the futility of art. "

In conclusion, it should be emphasized that culture really exists as a historically established multi-level system that has its own forms, its symbols, traditions, ideals, attitudes, values, and, finally, the image of thought and life - this centering force, the living soul of culture . And in this sense, the existence of culture acquires a super-individual character, while at the same time it is a deeply personal experience of the individual.

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