Materialism, Anthropology - Fundamentals of Philosophy


If there was no Marxism, materialism would hardly even be called a philosophical direction. Rather, is a way of understanding the world . Chronologically, this method can be traced from Antiquity to the present and is observed almost in all philosophical epochs.

His main postulates are:

• The world is material;

• The world is objective and does not depend on consciousness;

• matter is primary, eternal, uncreated;

• Consciousness is a property of matter;

• the world is cognizable.

As for Marxism , the innovations introduced by him into materialism consist in the application of materialized Hegelian dialectics, in the theses on consciousness as a property of highly organized matter - the brain and practice as a criterion of truth, in the materialist theory of reflection (subjective dialectic is a reflection - true or false - in the minds of people of the properties of the objective world) and the creation on this basis of a materialist theory of knowledge and a materialistic understanding of history. Top Achievement Marxism - in the consideration of materialistic dialectics as critical and revolutionary , aimed not at understanding the world, but on its transformation, and in a revolutionary way.

The weaknesses of Marxism are known and proven, especially the practice of its embodiment in our country. Thesis practice is the criterion of truth worked against those who put it forward. These weaknesses are the exaggeration of the role of economics and politics and the underestimation of spirituality, the mood for revolutionary change (with the obvious regularity of the evolutionary development of the world), ignoring the individual as a person and individuality.


In the XIX century. the only major representative of anthropology is L. Feuerbach, who is almost always referred to the German classics. Of course, his ideas came out of Hegelianism and largely use it, most often based on the views of Hegel. Nevertheless, Feuerbach's philosophy is so unique, so antithetical to Hegel's that it can be attributed to German classical philosophy only with a big stretch.

To begin with, Feuerbach, unlike all German classics, materialist although he himself did not consider himself as such. At the center of his philosophizing is man as a product of nature. A person's psyche depends on his body organization, not reducible, however, to physiology. The main thing in a person is a feeling of love in the philosophical sense of the word. At the heart of this lofty sense of mutual love lies religion. Feuerbach, like all his distant followers, it was in man that he sought the foundations for reconstructing the world on rational and moral principles, the principles of love and justice . The philosophy of the future in his ideas will merge with religion and become an anthropology - a comprehensive doctrine of man. This will signify a new era in the development of mankind, when the relationship of love is translated into everyday life.

The principle of searching for the beginnings of the world's reorganization in man was picked up in a century by an influential modern trend - philosophical anthropology. What exactly in man will serve as the basis for such a reconstruction, differently. However, the principle of searching for the foundations of the world in man is one, and they owe this to the original philosopher of the 19th century, ahead of his time, L. Feuerbach.

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