Methodological role of concepts cognitive style and...

Methodological role of concepts cognitive style and sensorype .

Mass experimental-psychological interethnic studies of thinking in the second half of the 20th century. a wide range of anthropologists. Among them - MG Segall, DT Campbell, M. Herskovits, M. Cole, S. Scribner. At the same time, most anthropologists have come to the conclusion about the lack of a special pre-logical type of thinking in traditional society. This conclusion was substantiated most reasonably in his studies by M. Cole and S. Skribner. In their opinion, so far there is no data confirming the existence of the "primitive logic". M. Cole recognized the equality of the "western and non-Western strategy of obtaining objective knowledge of the world around: both are related to the ordering, classification and systematization of information, both create consistently agreed systems of representations .

A special role in the development of modern cultural anthropology was played by the hypothesis of the influence of language on cultures and the way of comprehending the surrounding world, which is called linguistic relativity (it also has the name of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis).

E. Sapir analyzes the specifics of the language on a broad cultural background, proceeding from the active role of the individual as the bearer of culture: "Cultures are simply abstract configurations of models, ideas and actions that have infinitely different meanings for different individuals in the group" . Sapir reveals the multi-faceted role of language in the cultural system: "Languages ​​are more than systems for conveying our thoughts. They are the invisible veils that embody our spirit and impart a predetermined form to all its symbolic expression .

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Biographical information

The American ethnologist and linguist Edward Sepir (1884-1939) explored the ways in which human thinking and behavior are modeled by language and culture. He entered the top ten figures most significant for world linguistics in the 20th century. Was born in the mountains. Lauenberge (Germany), graduated from Columbia University, in 1910 - defended his doctoral dissertation. On the recommendation of F. Boas in 1910. becomes head of the Anthropology Department of the National Museum in Ottawa and continues field research. Sepira is rightfully considered one of the greatest masters of field work. Since 1925, Professor at the University of Chicago. Elected president of the Linguistic Society of America (1931), President of the Anthropological Society of America (1938). The scientific heritage of Sapir has more than 200 works.

Each language, from the point of view of Sapir, structures the world in a special way for those who speak this language. According to Sapir, a special role in the development of the real world is played by concepts for designating specific objects: "Many nature lovers do not feel that they are in real contact with it until they master the names of numerous flowers and trees, as if the primary the world of reality is the verbal world, and no one is able to approach nature until it has mastered the terminology that somehow magically expresses it .

Within the framework of the linguistic field, Sapir formed an approach that his followers, in particular, the American linguist and ethnographer Benjamin Lee Whorf, showed: the language learned in childhood defines a special way of seeing and structuring the world.

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