Methodology and main directions of the study of childhood, VV...

Methodology and main directions of the study of childhood

In modern publications, the direction of research into the phenomenon of childhood is classified in different ways. So, EA Orlova in the study of childhood identifies three main accents:

• child as object socialization and inculturation;

• child as subject in relations with others;

• culture from the perspective of children's experience.

From these three points of view, it is about identifying mechanisms for acquiring the "early experience"; The study of the ability of man to learn; on the detection of the relationship between the congenital and the learned in the ontogenetic process; about the analysis of the structure of the processes of socialization and inculturation from birth to adulthood.

These scientific problems correspond to such subject areas of study as interpersonal communication , learning processes , children's cultural activity . Domestic researchers are actively searching in the field of methodology for the study of childhood.

B. V. Avramenkov about the methodology of research of children's subculture.

A fruitful approach to the study of the phenomenon of childhood on the basis of the analysis of a child's subculture was developed by VV Avramenkova. She justifies the need to build a new subject area of ​​childhood research that considers modern childhood as the result of the sociogenesis of the relationship between children and adults. The subject of this research is the relationship mediated by the child's joint activity with the world, other people (adults and peers) , as well as the patterns of the generation of these relations, their functioning in the concrete historical social situation of development.

Q. V. Avramenkova reveals the uniqueness of the children's subculture. She conducted numerous field studies and based on the accumulated array of empirical material built an original spatio-temporal model of the children's subculture. The value of the model lies in the fact that with its help it is possible to identify the interconnection of the components of the child subculture in the culture of any society. The model is based on the n-dimensional space of the child's relationships in society. Subjects of relationships with the child are parents, friends, relatives, peers, social institutions, society as a whole.

The most important form of existence of such relationships is psychological space , i.e. length, structure, location of their implementation (Figure 12.1). In the context of the space of vital activity, the following planes of the child's relations are distinguished.

Fig. 12.1. The space of social interrelations in the child's subculture

(by VV Avramenkova)

The horizontal plane of this space is the relationship on equal and to relatively equal subjects are peers (children within their own age category, determined by the child).

Inclined plane - relationships with adults , those whom the child refers to as such, or adults "in general". It can be both older children, and even coevals of a child who have a higher status. For example, in traditional cultures - ego children who have been initiated.

The vertical plane is the least studied and most secret for the researcher a secret layer of spiritual relations <( child-Creator), which determines regardless of the religious affiliation of the family the formation of the category of conscience in the mind of the child and setting the moral space of ideas about good and evil.

The panoramic plane - is represented by the environment surrounding the child, changing with age (from the size of the outstretched arm in infancy to cosmic distances in adolescence). It is conditioned by historical and cultural representations (formed by a picture of the world), as well as by regional peculiarities of the terrain, geographical landscape and n.

The screen plane. In addition to these historically, psychologically open relationships, as VV Avramenkov notes, "from the mid-20th century onwards, there was a new reality - a closed, limited space of relations with the world, which has, for example, a seriously ill child or a modern child, cut off from the whole world by the virtual plane of a television, video or computer screen. " This is the screen plane of relations with the information environment.

Q. V. Avramenkova shows that the children's subculture performs important functions :

• socializing (the main agent of socialization is a group of peers);

• Psychotherapeutic (children's folklore is of great importance here)

• cultural preservation (in the bowels of children's subculture, genres, oral texts, rituals, etc., lost by modern civilization) are preserved;

• predictive, future-oriented.

Children's subculture becomes a means of self-assertion of the child in a social environment. Children's subculture is the most important factor determining tastes, fashion, language and ways of children's interactions. In this case, a group of peers acts as a reference source of various behavioral patterns. Such models, acting as prototypes of adult relationships, help the child to test himself in conditions that are correlated with the social and cultural norms of the social environment (Table 12.1).

Table 12.1

The structure of the children's subculture (based on the materials of V. V. Avramenkova)

Main areas of children's subculture

Content Elements

Traditional folk games

Dances, mobile games, military sports, etc.

Children's folklore

Counters, teasers, spells, scary stories, etc.

Children's Legal Code

Signs of property, collection of debts, barter, seniority and custodial law in different age groups, the right to use a mushroom/berry site, etc.

Childish humor

Flavors, anecdotes, rallies, podsovki, modern "jokes"

Children's magic and mythmaking

Invocation of the forces of nature for the fulfillment of desire, fantastic stories-fables

Children's philosophizing

Reasoning about life and death, etc.

End of Table. 12.1

Main areas of children's subculture

Content Elements

Children's word-making

Etymology, language changers, neologisms

Aesthetic representations of children

Making wreaths and bouquets, drawings and modeling, "secrets"

Tabulation of personal names

Giving peer and adult nicknames

Religious representations

Children's prayers, rituals

thematic pictures

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