METHODOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, Essence of cognition, characterization...


As a result of mastering this chapter, the student must:


• the essence of scientific knowledge of objective reality;

• the conceptual apparatus of the cognition process;

• The methodology of socio-economic research;

be able to

• highlight the object and subject of scientific knowledge;

• classify (differentiate) the levels of scientific knowledge;

• choose (develop) the methodology of a specific scientific study;


• The methodology of a specific socio-economic study;

• the methodology of theoretical cognition;

• Methods of conducting empirical research.

The essence of knowledge, characterization and classification of knowledge

Cognition is the highest form of reflection of objective reality. There are the following levels of knowledge: sensory cognition; thinking, empirical and theoretical cognition. Along with this, the following forms of cognition are distinguished:

• knowledge aimed at obtaining knowledge that is inseparable from the individual subject (perception, representation);

• knowledge aimed at obtaining objective knowledge that exists outside of a single individual (in the form of scientific texts, in the form of things created by man, which carry a sociocultural meaning, etc.).

There are also different types of cognition: ordinary, artistic and scientific, and within science - natural science and social science.

Various aspects of the nature of cognition and its possibilities are studied by a number of sciences, including the theory of knowledge that considers the cognitive result as knowledge.

Knowledge is the result of the process of cognition of reality, tested by practice and verified by logic, and its adequate reflection in the mind of a person in the form of representations, concepts, judgments, theories.

Knowledge has a different degree of reliability, reflecting the dialectics of relative and absolute truth. Relative knowledge is conditional, depending on certain conditions and with reference to the process of cognition is a reflection of reality with some incompleteness of the coincidence of the sample with the object. Absolute knowledge is an unconditional, in itself existent, exhaustive reproduction of generalized coincidences of the sample with the object.

The main goal of knowledge is to achieve true knowledge, which is realized in the form of theoretical propositions and conclusions.

Scientific cognition is the sphere of human activity, the function of which is to obtain and theoretically systematize an objective true knowledge of reality. If we consider the process of scientific cognition as a whole as a systemic formation, then the subject and the object of cognition should be distinguished as its elements first.

Object of cognition - this is something that confronts the subject, what his practical and cognitive activity is directed at.

The object is not the same as objective reality, matter. The object of cognition can be both material formations (chemical elements, physical bodies, living organisms), and social phenomena (society, the relationship of people, their behavior and activities). The results of cognition (the results of the experiment, scientific theories, science as a whole) can also become an object of cognition. Thus, objects existing independently of man are things, phenomena, processes that are mastered either in the course of practical activity or in the course of cognition. The object is only one side of the object to which the attention of any science is directed.

The subject of cognition is the carrier of object-practical activity and cognition, the source of cognitive activity aimed at the object of cognition. As the subject of knowledge can act as an individual (individual), and various social groups (society as a whole). In the case when the subject of knowledge is an individual, his self-consciousness (the experience of his own "I") is determined by the whole world of culture created throughout human history. Successful cognitive activity can be carried out under the condition of the active role of the subject in the cognitive process.

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