Miletus School - Philosophy course of lectures

Miletus School

The first philosophical school of Ancient Greece, and hence Europe, was the Miletus school, which originated in Asia Minor - Ionia, in the city of Mileet (now - the territory of Turkey). In the VIH-VII centuries. BC. Ionia is the foremost part of the Aegean world. It was located on the western coast of the peninsula of Asia Minor and consisted of 12 independent policies: Miletus, Ephesus, Clazomenia ... Persians put an end to the 200-year flowering of Ionian culture. The Ionian rebellion in 496 BC. was brutally suppressed, and the city of Miletus was destroyed.

In the history of philosophy, the Miletus school is represented by the names of Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes.

The founder of the philosophical school is Thales. According to Plato, one of the seven Greek sages, he was born and lived in Miletus. (Palee Miletus (circa 625 - about 547 BC), an ancient Greek thinker, mathematician, astronomer, public figure. According to the existing sources, Thales, a merchant by birth, traveled a lot through the countries of the East and Egypt He learned a lot from the Babylonian chaldeans and Egyptian priests, Thales was one of the greatest scholars of his time, ancient thinkers called him "first philosopher", "first mathematician", "first astronomer", "first physicist." Thales was builder of bridges, hydraulic engineer, developed with he invented a hydraulic clock, he explained the reasons for the flood of the Nile, set a new calendar -365 days a year, calculated and predicted a cycle of eclipses of the Sun, constructed a model of the celestial sphere.This is considered by many researchers to be the ancestor of European science.

Thales derived his astronomical, mathematical, physical, geographical and other knowledge from the philosophical notions of the world. He believed that the main beginning of everything is water: everything begins with water and everything returns to water. This is the first naive, but materialistic view of the world as opposed to mythology. But the water for Thales appears not only and not so much in the physical sense. He understood the water as the beginning, naively causing the Earth to float on it. Thing as a substance. On the other hand, it is not just water, but water "reasonable". The sun and other celestial bodies are nourished by the evaporation of water. About the natural philosophy of Thales, the United States thinker AI wrote objectively. Herzen: "Thales, recognizing the beginning of all water, saw in it more than this water flowing in the streams. For Thales, she probably was a way of thinking, in which all things were filmed and stored; only in this sense, wide, full of thought, empirical things as the beginning gets a truly philosophical meaning. " Thales, considering mythology and religion, regarded nature as something spiritual and animated. "The world is full of Gods," he said. Thales made attempts to understand the structure of the universe. Universe, believed that the stars are closest to all celestial bodies to the Earth, and the Sun is furthest away. Works Know yourself.

Anaximander is a disciple of Thales, the fundamental representative of the Ionian school of natural philosophy.

On the basic question of Ionian natural philosophy, which is the basis of all things, Anaximander gave a truly philosophical answer - at the basis of all manifest lies a certain special essence. He represented her apeiron ("aleiron" - "infinite", which in the doxography was designated "the beginning", but Anaximander Aleiron represented as everything in nature, it was an ancient understanding of matter). All things arise out of the aleuron and return to it after their life cycle. But the Aleiron in Anaximander is not the root cause of what is, like, for example, the water of Thales or the air of Anaximenes. Aleiron was a high degree of philosophical abstraction, which allowed him to explain the process of the formation of the world. From the aleuron, they distinguished the main opposites, the interaction between which form things and worlds - it's cold and warm, then wet and dry.

Anaximander from Miletó (circa 610 AD - about 546 BC), Ancient Greek thinker, naturalist, geographer and natural philosopher. According to the doxographers - a pupil, a friend and a relative of Thales. Little is known about his life, he is probably a descendant of the commercial aristocracy. With his name is associated the creation of a celestial globe and a geographical map. Anaximander is the author of the first philosophical work titled "About Nature", written by prose, which marked the beginning of many of the same works of the first ancient Greek philosophers. He thought "eternal nature" as mixture all qualitatively different substances, thus anticipating the concept of Anaxagoras' matter (500-428 BC) about certain "seeds" of things. The names of his other works are known: Earth Map and Globe & quot ;. The picture of the world Anaximander represented in his own way: in the center of the universe there is a fixed Earth, which has a cylindrical shape, it freely floats in the air due to the equal distance of the celestial bodies from it. Initially, the Earth was covered with water, then under the influence of sunlight some of the water evaporated and land appeared. The first animals originated from sea silt and in turn gave rise to the human race, this position makes it an ancient predecessor of the theory of species of Charles Darwin. According to Anaximander, there are an infinite number of worlds that are located both sequentially in time and next to each other. Thus, Anaximander made an attempt to give a comprehensive, rational explanation of the world and life free from mythology, as well as naive-materialistic and dialectical interpretation of them. The origin of the stars and their movement, clouds, earthquakes was explained to them by natural causes. He gave the first formulation of the law of conservation of matter: "Things are destroyed in the same elements from which they originated, according to the purpose of the & quot ;. In the last years of his life Anaximander was persecuted for his natural-philosophical views from the powerful world and was forced to hide.

Anaximen: is the disciple and follower of Anaximander. Unlike his teacher, who wrote, as the ancients themselves noted, "fanciful prose", Anaximenes wrote simply and understandably what spoke about the formation of the scientific and philosophical language, about the liberation of his mythological symbols.

Anaximenes from Migale (around 588 AD - about 525 BC), Greek philosopher-materialist, spontaneous dialectician. The author of his work "About Nature". He was more interested in astronomy and meteorology. According to his teaching, everything that exists comes from the first matter - air - and returns back to it. The air is infinite, eternal, mobile. Condenses, it forms first clouds, then water and, finally, earth, stones; discharging - turns into fire. Here you can see the idea of ​​the transition of quantity to quality. The air embraces everything: he and the soul, and the universal environment for the countless worlds of the universe. Anaximenes taught that the stars are fire, but we do not feel their warmth, because they are very far away. He gave a close to the true explanation of the eclipses of the Sun and the Moon.

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