Moral-psychological foundations of the economy
In connection with the rapid development of the economy during the formation of capitalism, especially in the twentieth century, interest in the behavior and psychology of people in the sphere of economic life increased sharply. Within the framework of psychological science, a special branch began to be formed-economic psychology.
The economy is an enormous sphere of human activity, significant in its scale and vitality. And where people act and interact, it is impossible to do without moral and psychological principles. The main ethical categories of good and evil, conscience and honor, freedom and responsibility, and others permeate the entire fabric of human life, including the sphere of economic relations. And just as there is, for example, medical ethics, economic ethics exist in exactly the same way - the production of material and spiritual wealth, the elements of the market, the collection of taxes, the payment of labor - all this is permeated in one way or another with moral and psychological principles.
Economic psychology is designed to analyze the economic reality in the country, to study the relationship of a person to various forms of property - private, state, cooperative and personal, as well as psychological problems of human needs, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, the laws of their inception, development, satisfaction and reproduction , psychological conditions for the effective functioning of the economy -
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of the mechanism; predict the development of not only large-scale economic situations, but also narrow areas of economic activity of individuals, their groups and society as a whole. Here, substantial results have been obtained regarding the elucidation of the choice motivation, a model of economic behavior aimed at protecting the natural environment has been developed, for example, taking into account the fact that environmental comfort is the greatest not only hygienic, but also economic value.
Specialists in the field of economic psychology note the increasing role of psychological components in the relationship between producers and consumers, between sellers and buyers. It is extremely important to identify and analyze such an economic and psychological phenomenon as an intuitive comprehension and understanding of the problem of choosing a line of conduct in transactions.
The outcome of the undertakings in any kind of human activity is uncertain, there may be adverse consequences of the acts, their failure, i.e. any activity involves risk. It is characterized by a measure of surprise with success or a certain probability of failure and the expectation of adverse consequences in this case. The risk of some loss or even a complete collapse of the whole thing can cause moral and psychological trauma to the subject of the action. In economic psychology, therefore, there is a motivated risk, i. designed for situational advantages in the economic sphere, and unmotivated - as a case, a fateful combination of circumstances.
When making an economic decision, one must not take into account the characteristics of the moral and psychological appearance of a partner, say, measures of its reliability and measures of its responsibility. People say that the arrangement is more expensive than money. Partners must be mutually assured of reliability. Unfortunately, this is not such an indispensable trait of the character and moral character of every person, and one can not consider that reliability is something taken for granted. Of course, an experienced businessman can rely on his experience, on his natural gift of intuition and the power of intellectual insight, but it is advisable to use the professional experience of the psychologist, and to some extent, the knowledge of psychology itself. The practice of economic life in one way or another justifies the importance of psychological service in the economy.
It also happens that in the difficult economic cycle of people attracts the insidious psychological phenomenon of hope - all those who play on the stock exchange are hoping for a win, and fate throws others onto the stony shore of collapse. But a person who is afraid of risk can not hope for any profit at all - such is the contradiction of life. As in all spheres of life, and in the economy, the phenomenon of hope is diverse - it can be rational, based on scrupulous calculation, and maybe intuitive. And there is no way to say that it is more reliable in the very hope.
Here it is appropriate to recall the idea of Vl. Solovyov: there was no such low state in mankind when the material necessity of obtaining vital means was not complicated by the moral question: society, and in its economic life, must be the organized realization of good. The peculiarity and independence of the economic sphere is not that it has its fatal laws, but that it represents a special, unique field for the application of a single moral law to the substance of its relations. All acute issues of economic life, according to Vl. Solovyov, are closely connected with the notion of property, which, however, in itself more belongs to the field of law, morality and psychology, rather than to the field of economic relations. This circumstance clearly shows how erroneous is the desire to isolate economic phenomena into a completely independent and self-sufficient sphere. It can be said that the essence of the moral solution of a multitude of economic problems lies in the internal connection with the vital interests and goals of man and humanity.
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The disordered play of economic factors and processes is possible only in troubled times of life of a particular society. Under normal conditions, in a lively and future-oriented society, economic elements are determined not by criminal, self-serving, slovenly-irresponsible decisions and actions of workers directly, and especially by leaders of all ranks, but by morally mandated motives. The very fact of economic troubles and disasters testifies that, as a rule, economic relations are not organized in a reasonable way, they are not provided with completely legal principles and are not illuminated by the light of moral principles. Moral beauty is incompatible with self-interest, with the manifestation of corruption and generally with any crimes against humanity. Business success is a kind of examination not only on the level of intelligence, but also on the level of moral culture. The business success of a morally educated and, especially, of a religious person is determined not simply by the "bare substance of profit", but also by the service of one's neighbor. Subordination of material interests and relations in human society, according to Vl. Solovyov, some special, from the acting economic laws, is only a fiction of a bad metaphysics that does not have a shadow of a foundation in reality, therefore the general demand of reason and conscience remains in force, so that this region also submits to a higher moral principle, so that in its economic life society was an organized exercise of good.
So, we have briefly outlined the circle of political economic ideas that are not only specifically scientific, but also philosophical in nature. Analysis of the main economic issues from the point of view of philosophy allows us to better understand the nature of society, the principles of people's real life and the nature of their relations, tied to their fundamental needs and interests, without which the very existence of people is unthinkable. In this regard, we had to consider the fundamental categories of political economy, of course, in the most general terms.
The state is the body of policy implementation. The policy of the state primarily extends to the sphere of the economy, but is not limited to it. It permeates all spheres of modern social life, in each of them directly affecting a person. We turn to the consideration of the phenomenon of politics. I emphasize once again that for the normal functioning of the economy, the "keen eye of the state" is of great importance, its delicate but at the same time insistent and assertive influence (primarily through the system of legal norms) on the life of the market, on its stabilization, on its maximum service the cause of growth both in production and in the well-being of the people.
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