N. Kuzansky. Selected philosophical works - Reader on philosophy

H. Cusa. Selected philosophical writings

KUZANSKY Nicholas (1401 - 1464) - representative of the natural philosophy of the Renaissance, the German cardinal. The real name is Krebs, the pseudonym "Kuzansky". he took the place of birth. The philosophy of Cusa did not go beyond religion. As a hierarch of the church, he obeyed the concordant of the medieval order, but his understanding of the world and man was directed to the future.

In his treatises, Cusa rejected the medieval rationalist system of Aristotelianism, he was sure that knowledge of things is possible with the help of feelings, intelligence and intelligence, but knowledge of finite things always goes beyond its limits.

Cusa solved the main problem - the relationship of God and the world - from the standpoint of geocentrism.

The essence of his views, Nikolai Kuzansky expressed in the formula "God in everything and everything in God." He paid much attention to the problem of man's place in the world.

Major works: About learned ignorance & quot ;, About not another and others

Chapter XXIII . God is the single most basic foundation of the whole universe, and as the sphere springs from infinite rotations, so God, as the maximum sphere, is the simplest measure of all dimensions. In fact, every animation, every movement, every understanding comes from God, is in it, exists through it. Along with it, the rotation of the eighth sphere is no less than the rotation of the infinite sphere, because God is the end of all movements, because in him every movement is at rest, as in its end.

Indeed, God is the maximum rest; in him every movement is rest. So, the maximum rest is the measure of all movements, as the maximum straightness is the measure of all circles and the maximum presence or eternity is a measure of all times.

In maximum rest, all natural movements, as in their end, are at rest, and every opportunity is perfected in it, as in an endless action.

So, in him, all the movements, produced by nature, rest at the end of the movement; every possibility in it leads to a finite motion. All beings tend to it, but since they are finite and can not be equally involved in one another, some only become involved in this end through the intermediary of others, as the line comes to the sphere by means of a triangle and a circle, and the triangle by means of circle, the circle comes to the sphere through itself.

* * *

If they say that God is the truth, then a lie comes out to meet them, if they say it is virtue, then vice occurs, substance contradicts accidents, etc.

But, as God himself is not a substance, which, however, is not all and not such that nothing is contrary to it and that, further, God is not a truth that would not be everything, without any opposition - these separate words can come to God only infinitely belittling it.

Indeed, every name leaves something of its meaning, but none of the names can come up to a god who is also nothing but everyone. That is why positive names, if they were suitable to God, only in relation to his creations. It is not that creations are the reason why they approach God, since the maximum of nc can borrow from creations, but they are suitable to him through infinite power in relation to creations.

God could forever create, because if he could not do this, he would not have omnipotence. Creator although it is suitable to God, in relation to them created, but it was only appropriate to him before any creature appeared , because he could create from time immemorial. This also applies to fairness and to all the positive names attributed to us by God and borrowed from living beings, because these names signify some perfection. And this is so, despite the fact that all these names were - before we endowed them with a god - are eternally imprisoned in its highest perfection and in its infinite name, like all things indicated by such names that we transfer to God.

Indeed, the creation begins its existence from the fact that God is the father; from the fact that he: there is a son, it completes itself; from the fact that he is a holy spirit, creation is coordinated with the universal, universal order of things: these are the traces of Trinity in every thing. Here are some more thoughts on this subject by Aurelius Augustine, expressed by him when conveying the following words from the book "Genesis": "In the beginning God created heaven and earth"; These words are interpreted by Augustine, as follows: "God created the foundations of things by the fact that he is the father of"

That's why some statement about God in theology is based on applying to creatures, living beings, even divine names, in which the deepest mysteries of the knowledge of God are hidden. These names are taken from Jews and Chaldeans; of these names, none expresses a god unless it refers to a particular property, excluding the name in four letters that are do-he-wah-he <( ye-x-in-x ) ; is an inescapable name.

Chapter XXV . Nations differently referred to God as a creature.

The pagans called the god depending on different ideas about the creations: Jupiter - for one hundred amazing kindness (Julius Firmicus says that Jupiter is such a favorable heavenly body that if Jupiter reigned alone in the sky, people would be immortal); Saturn - according to the depth of thought and the invention of the things necessary in life; called god Mars - on the basis of victories in wars; Mercury - due to caution in the councils; Venus - as the bearer of love that preserves nature; The Sun - because of the life force for everything born of nature; The moon - because of the conservation of juices, on which life depends; Cupid - due to the friendship of both sexes; and called it even Nature, because it preserves the kinds of things through the duality of the sexes.

Hermes says that all animals are non-animal; have two sexes, which is why the cause of all things - God - concludes the gender of the male and the female sex, - a fact that Hermes saw in Cupid and Venus, Even the Roman Valery, in stating the same thing, sang almighty Jupiter, the god-father and mother, finding that Cupid as one thing tends to the other, is the daughter of Venus, ie. very natural beauty. It was said that Venus was the daughter of the all-powerful Jupiter, from which nature originated, as well as everything that relates to it. Even the temple of peace, eternity and harmony, the Pantheon, in which there was an altar of an infinite Terminus, without boundaries, standing in the middle of an open-air temple, and other similar facts, show us that the Gentiles called God in various ways in applying to the understanding of living beings.

(About the person) . Man in the general order represent through the unity of light - human nature - and the otherness of corporal darkness ...

Remaining humanly concrete, the unity of humanity clearly coalesces in itself according to the nature of its certainty all in the world. The power of its unity embraces everything, closes everything within its own sphere, and nothing in the world avoids its potency. Guessing that everything is achieved by feeling, or reason, or intellect, and noticing that it cools these forces in its own unity, it presupposes the ability to come to everything in a human way. In fact, man is God, only not absolutely, since he is a man; he is the human god ( humanus cleus). Man is also a world, but not all things once he is a man; he is a microcosm, or the human world. The sphere of humanity covers thus with its human potential the god and the whole world. A person can be a human god; and as a god, he can be humanly human angel, human beast, human lion, or bear, or whatever: within the human potency is in its own way everything.

In humanity, in a human way, as in the Universe in a universal way, everything is unfolded, since it is the human world. In her, in the human image, everything is folded, since she is a human god. Humanity is a humanically definite unity, it is also an infinity, and if the property of unity is to unfold from itself, since unity is a being that cools down everything in its simplicity, then man has the power to unfold all of himself in the circle of his field, to produce everything from potency of its center. But it is also characteristic of unity to be the ultimate goal of its unfolding of itself, since it is infinity; accordingly, man's creative activity has no other ultimate goal, except man. He does not go beyond his limits when he creates, but when he expands his power, he reaches himself; and he does not produce anything new, but discovers that everything that he created during the unfolding was in advance already in himself, for in a human manner, as we said, there is a whole world in him. As the power of man in a human way is able to come to all, so everything in the world comes to him, and the striving of this miraculous power to embrace the whole world is nothing but the curtailment of the universal universe in it.

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