Negation and Contradiction
From time immemorial, the mind's attention was attracted both by the contradictoriness of the forms of being and by their integrity. These ways of interaction in the world, in human relations, in the states of the soul are the key principles not only of being itself, but of the worldview, and the methodology of cognition and action: without them one can not understand anything in life. We argue, we defend something, and even refute it, and we do it not only in a dispute with others, but also with ourselves, with our own, as it were, another "I". The primordial and perennial contradiction of existence unfolds in constantly changing forms. The philosophical views of ancient thinkers, both in the East and in the West, recognized the existence of opposites in the foundation of all things. Such are black and white, sweet and bitter, male and female, good and evil, great and small, and the like.
The comprehension of the phenomenon of contradiction begins with a statement of the thought of collision of different and opposite opinions, ideas, positions. Thus, the very concept of "contradiction" has its etymological source communication of people, communication, their dispute (contradict - to speak against, object), and then the comprehension of the confrontation of certain forces, for example good and evil, freedom and slavery and so on
Every person, however rational he is, is full of inner contradictions in his thoughts, feelings, drives, needs, interests, desires and opportunities, in self-esteem and in his value orientations. There is a lot of contradictory between the conscious and the unconscious beginning. Storms of opposing passions, the demands of reason and feelings boil in the misty "cauldron", which is called the capacious but obscure word "soul". Man constantly, from day to day, enters into innumerable relationships with other people. There arises a confrontation of desires, aspirations, motives, opinions, actions, will and mind. For example, for FM Dostoevsky, the assertion that in life all contradictions "live together" never lost its sharpness. And no matter how dreadful they may be, you can not hide from them.
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Heuristic meaning of contradictions. Contradiction and truth
Scientific knowledge moves in a constant contradiction between the inexhaustible wealth of forces, properties and relationships in the real world and the desire of man to reproduce them as fully as possible in the system of scientific knowledge. "All the essential ideas in science were born in a dramatic conflict between reality and our attempts to understand it," asserted A. Einstein. Dialectical contradiction in thought is not a contradiction to oneself, not a lack of logic, but the interaction of opposing positions, points of view, views, concepts. The recommendations of formal logic, including the rule that protects oneself from the simplest contradictions to oneself, a frivolous manner of leaping from one statement to another without any objective and logical reasons, not only do not interfere, but, on the contrary, help a person to understand the real contradictions. In dialectics, we are not talking about the contradiction of a person to himself (although it may be unconscious in the search activity, when the associations of thoughts revolve around an idea), but about the contradictions in the object itself and about the reflection of these contradictions in thinking, where they are consciously fixed and are resolved.
Already in itself the fact of ascertaining the contradiction in science is the identification and posing of the problem, which is of great importance for the development of knowledge. Do not be afraid of contradictions: a serious contradiction conceals in itself the rudiment of discovery. In public life, where innumerable conflicting interests and passions are encountered, both group and personal, the new is far from straight and smooth, and more often than not, with great difficulty, sacrifices, tortuous ways, and at the same time, as a rule, fairly bruised, persistently breaks through his way through the dense thorns of all kinds of resistance and only eventually wins. This is the vital force of an objectively justified new.
Life organically connects such opposites, which, when unilaterally considered, seem incompatible. In society there are natural contradictions of different or oppositely directed forces, but there are ugly contradictions born of human stupidity or even meanness. From the awareness and development of the contradictions between the spiritual and the physical, eternal and changing, subjective and objective, good and evil, truth and error have become the very philosophy.
Denial and continuity
All the developing in the world ceaselessly renounce themselves, from the past forms of their being and denies now what yesterday was quite enough. There is an ineradicable need for other forms of being, an unquenchable thirst for the new. The purification thunderstorm of denial is a necessary moment of innovation. In the innumerable change of nascent and dying forms, species of plants and animals arise and disappear. Generations of people are born and die. "Man is the son of dead fathers," wrote the United States thinker and philosopher, one of the founders of United States cosmism, IF Fedorov (1829-1903). In the history of mankind, through evolution and revolution, forms of social existence, types of statehood, types of public administration, the nature of democracy are changing. And as AI Herzen put it, humanity has not given a subscription to live always as it is now. The course of time and the tireless work of constantly searching thought continuously produce a reassessment of values in the history of ideas. Criticism reveals in the existing elements that are in need of overthrow in the name of a different, more worthy being.
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Any development, regardless of its level and content, can be represented as a series of different steps connected with each other in such a way that one stage is the negation of the other. No development can occur in any sphere of being, which does not deny its former forms of existence. This principle reflects the profound drama of the historical process: the connection between the new and the old, the past and the future, rejection and acceptance, a return to the past in a transformed form, and a repetition of the past in the present.
Before us is the inexorable law of life - and everything natural, and all human. Nature grants life to events, to all its countless formations. She mercilessly takes it from them. All single is like a fire flame, where the elements of fire devour their own material. At the same time, the object that lives in time simultaneously becomes different, and in a certain sense remains the same. So youth denies childhood, and itself, in turn, denied maturity, and the latter - old age, but at the same time all these different ages belong to the same person. This living denial is analogous to that which life itself produces everywhere. The kidney, G. Hegel says, disappears when the flower dissolves, and one could say that it is refuted by a flower; Similarly, when a fetus appears, the flower is recognized as a false available being of the plant, and as its truth, instead of the flower, a fruit appears. These forms not only differ from each other, but also displace each other as incompatible. However, their fluid nature makes them at the same time moments of organic unity in which they not only contradict each other, but one is as necessary as the other; and only this same necessity is the life of the whole.
But not all negation in development is preservation: it can be destruction. Negation as the destruction of one another is purely negative, destructive. Reasonable negation is creative negation, when the old is not simply destroyed, but is removed: the valuable is saved in the new one. This is such a denial, when all the wealth of what has already been achieved is held, and it goes to a new level. "Nothing can be more erroneous, like throwing away the past, which served to achieve the present (AI Herzen). According to G. Hegel, the "dialectical" development proceeds in cycles, each of which consists of three stages: the starting point of development; the transformation of the phenomenon into its opposite, i.e. negation; the transformation of the new opposite into its opposite, i.e. negation of negation.
Creative negation is at the same time retention: destroying the existing, it preserves the positive in withdrawn form. For progressive movement, it is not generally denial that negation is significant, but negation as a moment of genetic connection in development, which implies a positive retention.
Negation is valuable not for denying, but for a higher statement: it must be ready to undergo a new denial. Dissatisfaction and protest against existing being is the same norm as adaptation to it: these are two opposing, but equally necessary, moments of life. The new is often taken painfully, since it carries a threat to the existence of the old. It is known that the new is born in agony: it touches the interests of the stagnant part of society and even more insults its inattention to the habitual. How often and many different kinds of innovations in their time were rejected by the inertia of thinking. This took place in art (rejected both Rembrandt and Delacroix), and in the forms of social life.
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