New realities: actors, networks and hybrid objects - Philosophy of Science

New realities: actors & quot ;, networks and hybrid objects

Now we turn to the description of the other side of STS - an attempt to take a new look at new realities, which are often called technological science. Here there are concepts such as actors, networks, mixed (hybrid) objects and disciplines. "Latour's ontological model is called" actor-network ", where the network is a chain of connections and relations between" actors of action "(actors), whereas the actors themselves are the entities constituted by these relationships. Differences between subjects and objects (as between facts and fetishes, the world and the construct) are not absolute and are not given a priori; they are secondary in relation to the original reality - the space inhabited by hybrids (the "actualities"). "Finished human subjects and respectable objects of the outside world can not be the starting point for me; they can be a point of my arrival [25, p. 113-173].

The properties and ontological status of any object are unique, that is, they are the result of the network position acquired by them - a place in a series of communications and relations of the communication system. The relativity of the characteristics of actors makes it difficult to talk about "subjects" and objects : we can only talk about quasi-objects and quasiobjects - never the final, constituted in the network ingredients of the world. This imposes a ban on any kind of reductionism (and fundamentalism): neither nature, nor culture are keys to the cipher iodine name world & quot ;. The only acceptable way is to start with a hybrid, actors in the network and follow them in the way they together create the "society" and nature (derived from mixed reality) [14]. According to relational ontology, the world is not inhabited by "subjects" and "objects," but by hybrids [14]. The scientific result, which, appearing, also takes its place in the series of elements (actors) of the network, respectively, is historical. Its existence is defined by relations with a set of other hybrids. Violation and transformation of links within the communication system can lead to the disappearance of the scientific fact [25, p. 146-153].

It seems to us that for the physics of the XVII - the first third of the XX century. this model does not work. RUF are created within the scientific community, where people and ideas interact in a more simple and localized scheme. And after the RUF is created, it no longer changes.

This feature of physics and other natural sciences is due to the fact that, as shown in Ch. 9, by virtue of the two-level structure of the physics sections, where the bases are set at the first level (RUF (H)), and the second one is based on theories (SIV), ontological "language" The PIO on which the SIS are created is closed and context-independent. Contextual independence of PIP distinguishes them from typical objects considered in postmodernism, to which, apparently, STS also can be attributed. This is the special status of natural science knowledge and its epistemological exclusiveness. Knorr-Cetin, Latour and their colleagues do not notice this, because, following the positivists, they continue to proceed from a single-level model of science in which the base layer (ORI) is not distinguished.

In addition, in physics, an object is selected (what is "moving"), and it is separated from man by technology (devices). The leading element here is the theory, and the Knorr-Cetina scheme, which is criticized, "the experiment serves to confirm (verify) the theory of" as supposedly basic - is too poor to describe the types of connections between technical operations and speculation. This is something that does not take into account Knor-Cetin and Latour in his reasoning when they try to extend them to classical and non-classical science.

Because of the above, there is no symmetry between a person ( human ) and a thing ( nonhuman ) , for which Latur and Pickering are so strongly in favor. In the network there are only technical and various mental operations. If we turn to the process of creation of the PIO or VIO, then we (as well as K. Popper) can not describe the creative processes. We do not think that Latur can do this either. But most likely this is close to the process of a technical invention, where, unlike the various humanitarian situations in contemporary culture, which, say, Roland Barth considers, it is hardly appropriate to talk about the symmetry of the inventor and the material with which he is dealing. In science and technology XIX - the first half of XX century. The boundary between thinking and unthinking material is clearly drawn. Do they arise at the end of the 20th century? an area where it is not so, is a question, but it's not about the science that is being discussed here.

The concept of Latura and the technology occurs from the humanities, and her program proclaims a way out of the boundaries, marked by the opposition of the natural and human sciences, occurred at the dawn of the New Time. Although going beyond these boundaries and justified by the utopia of the global environmental project only the future will show how justified the expansion of the humanities science into historically external areas for it.

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